Responsible Safety Officer
The Responsible Safety Officer is the person who has been delegated the authority to develop and administer Your ABCss health and safety program.
By law, the Responsible Safety Officer is the person designated by the company with the duty and authority to implement and maintain Your ABCss Injury and Illness Prevention Program. The Responsible Safety Officer is assigned the responsibility of providing technical guidance and services in the field of health and safety needed by Your ABCs management. To fulfill this objective the Responsible Safety Officer is required to:
1) Provide management at all levels with the information, advice, and assistance needed to formulate Your ABCs's health and safety policy, directives, procedures, and standards.
2) Assist management at all levels in establishing and maintaining a healthful and safe working environment free from unacceptable risks, in conformance with OSHA health and safety guidelines and in compliance with applicable standards, codes, and regulations.
3) Monitor operations within Your ABCs and, where appropriate at off-site facilities, provide management with the information needed to maintain a healthful and safe working environment, free from unacceptable risks.
4) Develop and provide general safety education and training programs. Assist in the development of specific job safety training programs.
5) Develop plans and train response personnel to control emergency situations (earthquake, radiation, injury, fire, etc.).
6) Provide health and safety support services assigned by the Company Officer to whom the Responsible Safety Officer reports.
7) Maintain a staff of specialists or consultants knowledgeable in all areas of safety.
8) Prepare and maintain Your ABCss Health and Safety Manual and other documents that relate to safety. Specify proper protective equipment for issuing to employees.
9) Check plans of all new projects for construction safety, industrial safety, and other safety reviews as required by OSHA and Your ABCs regulations.
10) Stop hazardous operations where life hazard or major property damage is imminent and follow with documented evidence.
To carry out its responsibilities, the Responsible Safety Officer maintains a staff of specialists and outside consultants in the appropriate environment, health, and safety disciplines.
These disciplines include: Construction Safety, Engineering Services, Environmental Protection, Industrial Hygiene, Laser Safety, Mechanical Safety, Non-destructive Testing, Occupational Safety, Radiation Safety, Safety Training, and Education Seismic Safety
The functions of the Responsible Safety Officer are divided into five areas:
2. Health Physics
3. Engineering Services/Occupational Safety
4. Industrial Hygiene
5. Environmental Protection
Some of these functions may be delegated in whole or in part to staff and/or outside consultants.
This area deals with the day-to-day safety operations of the Your ABCs. It includes the following personnel: Field Supervisors or Field Safety Officers help in the planning or preparation of hazardous projects and analysis of difficult safety problems. They provide on-site training; protective equipment and other safety-related equipment for hazardous operations; maintenance of environmental monitoring devices; evaluation of ventilation and air cleaning equipment; and radioactive or chemical source inventory. Decontamination and Waste Disposal Contractors provide services to decontaminate special equipment; assistance with clean-up of radioactive or hazardous chemical spills; collection and disposal of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Special Transportation Contractor provides services for receiving and shipping of radioisotopes and consultation on the regulations concerning transportation of hazardous chemicals.
This area is composed of the following functions: The Radiation Physics Section is primarily concerned with the radiation safety aspects of accelerators. The areas of immediate concern are the following:
§ Radiation intensity in occupied areas
§ Adequacy of radiation safety interlock systems
§ Access control to radiation areas
§ Proper sign and warning systems
§ Review and approval of facility radiation Operational Safety Procedures
In addition, the Radiation Physics Section performs the following functions:
§ Experimental beam line safety analysis
§ Shielding calculations for proposed new accelerators Radiation damage studies Development of measurement instruments and techniques
§ Experimental source term measurements
§ Neutron energy spectral measurements
The X-Ray Safety Section evaluates the use of x-ray equipment at Your ABCs. This is accomplished by periodic radiation surveys, physical inspection of x-ray facilities and logbooks, approval of Operational Safety Procedures, and the receipt of Certification of Training documents. This Section also advises on matters of instrument selection, measurement techniques, and safety apparatus design (interlocks, barriers, monitors, etc.). This Section files and distributes all documentation generated by the above operations.
The primary concern of this area is the general safety of Your ABCs. Its responsibilities include:
§ Occupational Safety: Investigation, statistical analysis, and review of personal injury, property damage, and vehicle accident reports.
§ Recommendation on protective clothing and equipment for eyes, head, feet, and hands to prevent traumatic injury.
§ Evaluation of material-handling and storage facilities, such as manual and mechanical handling devices, slings, ropes, chains, and hooks.
§ Review of design, layout, and code compliance of new or modified facilities and buildings and follow-up inspections of construction sites.
§ Recommendation on proper use and care of ladders, ramps, elevated walks, and work platforms.
§ Review of traffic safety, such as traffic signs and markings, traffic patterns, and layout planning.
§ Determination of qualified operators of special vehicles and equipment.
§ Mechanical Safety: Review/design/inspection of hazardous equipment.
§ Advise on vehicle safety (design, consultation).
§ Recommendation of adherence to mechanical design codes, standards, and procedures.
§ Provision of non-destructive testing services.
§ Reviews of Operational Safety Procedure relating to hazardous equipment.
§ Seismic Safety: Design of anchoring or restraining devices. Inspections and consultations. Interface with building and construction contractors.
This function must recognize, evaluate, and recommend control for occupational health hazards. Outside consultants are responsible for providing the following services:
§ Toxicology of occupational chemical hazards
§ Control of non-ionizing electromagnetic spectrum hazards, such as lasers, ultraviolet, infrared, and microwave-radio frequency radiation
§ Evaluation of ventilation for comfort, dilution, and local exhaust
§ Noise and sound analysis
§ Illumination evaluation
§ Environmental sanitation, such as food, water, and vector and pest control
§ Measurement of physiological stresses, such as temperature extremes
§ Provision of protective equipment, such as respiratory, hearing, and special eye protection
§ Control of bio-hazards
§ Laser safety
This area is involved with the identification and quantification of environmental quality concerns, development and maintenance of operating permits, assessment of pollution abatement programs, and liaison with environmental protection agencies. It includes the following services:
§ Environmental monitoring, surveillance and analysis of contaminants in air, rain, surface water, soil, and stack exhaust
§ Air pollution control
§ Water pollution control
§ Polychlorinated biphenyl inventory in transformers and capacitors.
§ Underground tank monitoring and reporting
§ Treatment facilities permitting and sampling for regulatory compliance
§ Environmental remediation of contaminated sites.
All the functions of the Responsible Safety Officer include the following areas of responsibilities:
§ Environmental Monitoring, including both workplace and office data collection and measurement techniques.
§ Decontamination and Waste Disposal.
§ Safety Resource Library Maintenance.
§ The Responsible Safety Officer should either maintain or have the Company maintain a library that contains copies of codes, standards, safety manuals, and reports that regulate Your ABCss safety program. The library also contains copies of texts and reports regarding health and safety.
§ Industrial Hygiene and Environmental Protection.
§ Health Physics laboratory. Maintain extra protective clothing, safety glasses and safety shoes for guests and existing employees needing temporary replacement of their protective equipment.
Your ABCs policy and federal law require that Your ABCs staff, participating guests, and visitors receive appropriate health and safety training. Managers are responsible for ensuring that employees and guests under their supervision receive this training so they are fully informed about possible occupational health hazards and know how to work safely. Training must include Your ABCs's health and safety orientation for new employees plus any additional training specific to the nature of hazards on the job; employees must complete this training before they can work unsupervised. All new employees must attend the new employee orientation within the first month of employment.
OSHA and other federal regulations spell out several specific health and safety training requirements for special hazards. These include, but are not limited to, radiation safety, hazard communication for exposure to hazardous substances, asbestos exposure, respirator use, hearing conservation, laser safety, confined space hazards, and certification for using material in moving equipment such as forklifts and overhead cranes. Employees who do hazardous work, such as working with high-voltage power supplies, or who are members of building emergency teams are required to have CPR and First Aid certification.
Managers should identify training needs for the job classifications for which they are responsible. Please refer to specific chapters in this manual for further information on training requirements. Consult with the Responsible Safety Officer staff about other training needs and requirements. Training not provided by Responsible Safety Officer, such as on-the-job training, is the responsibility of line management. This includes information on procedural changes or system modifications that impact safety.
Responsible Safety Officer provides several health and safety training courses, technical assistance on training needs, and resources to help supervisors fulfill their training responsibilities. An announcement describing health and safety courses offered by Responsible Safety Officer is distributed quarterly. Educational resources such as fact sheets, hazard summaries, and other written materials, as well as videos and slide shows, are available from Responsible Safety Officer.
Supervisors can get a catalog from Responsible Safety Officer describing audio-visual materials that may be used to supplement safety training programs. ALL health and safety training must be documented. Supervisors must note the participants names and employee numbers, topics discussed, instructor(s), and date. Supervisors are responsible for maintaining training records. A copy of this information should be sent to the Responsible Safety Officer training/education coordinator for inclusion in Your ABCss training data base.
Building Management & Construction
Your ABCss buildings and equipment must equal or exceed existing legal standards for safety, fire prevention, sanitation, architectural barriers, health protection, and resistance to seismic forces. Safeguards must provide built-in protection against injury to personnel or damage to property and include methods for limiting the consequences of accidents. Protection systems must permit the most effective work conditions consistent with effective safeguards. Since physical plant facilities are the responsibility of the Engineering Department, the following matters related to engineering and construction must be referred to the Engineering Department: New construction or alteration of buildings, building facilities, fixed equipment, outside utilities such as cooling towers, electrical substations, underground pipes, conduits, or vaults, roadways, parking lots, walkways, landscaping, sewers, and drainage systems. Plans under consideration that will affect any structure or physical plant facility because of the size of the project, loads, vibration, temperature requirements, humidity control, radiation background, or ventilation requirements, or any code-related feature of the facility.
The Engineering Department is responsible for planning, construction, and alterations involving physical plant facilities. Job control by the Engineering Department includes obtaining all required official approvals; requesting new account numbers; initiating requisitions, materials orders, and job orders; and administrating all subcontracts pertaining to the project. To initiate new construction or alterations, a request is submitted to the Engineering Department. The submission must inform the Plant Engineering Department of the proposed use and any special safety requirements for the project. The Responsible Safety Officer will assist the Engineering Department in determining the need for developing specific safety criteria and facilities.
Plant alterations that are necessary for safety or to improve safety should be carried out expeditiously. Requests for such alterations or additions, and job orders for such projects, should be conspicuously marked as safety projects. The Responsible Safety Officer establishes appropriate priorities for these safety projects.
Hazardous materials must be handled and stored in enclosures that 1) protect the worker by means appropriate to the hazard and 2) protect the casual or unwitting passerby from hazards or access to hazards. These aims are achieved by work enclosures such as hoods, glove boxes, fire safes, and fenced areas. Applicable construction criteria for such work enclosures are given below.
The standards and recommendations of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) will be followed.
Glove boxes for use with radioisotopes or other hazardous materials will be purchased or built and installed only with the approval of the Responsible Safety Officer.
Fences of suitable type must be provided wherever unauthorized access can lead to personnel injury or property damage. Protection from such serious hazards as high level radiation, high pressure, or exposed high voltage requires special considerations. Vehicle gates must be at least 12 ft wide.
The following general requirements apply to all buildings: Construction should be of non-combustible or fire-rated materials as much as possible. Building Manager must ensure that the floors of traffic corridors are unobstructed and meet code requirement. All work areas should have the following: At least two unobstructed exits if total floor area is over 250 sq ft. A smooth wall finish and smooth, impermeable work surfaces.
§ Automatic fire detection and suppression systems.
§ Adequate ventilation.
§ Additional requirements for manufacturing, industrial or production areas are as follows:
§ Safety enclosures or barriers for high energy systems.
§ Warning signals and safety interlocks for high energy systems or equipment.
§ Adequate grounding devices for electrical systems as required by the National Electric Code and this manual.
§ Proper design of pressurized gas systems in accordance with this manual.
Additional requirements for chemical handling areas are as follows:
§ Process and special ventilation in accordance with the ACGIH standards and recommendations. Safety storage arrangements for chemicals.
§ Emergency eye wash and shower facilities.
In addition to the full- and part-time employees on the Your ABCs payroll, important work is performed by personnel through contract arrangements. These non-Your ABCs persons are sometimes referred to as contract or subcontract personnel. Nevertheless, the safety obligations of subcontractor personnel are the same as those of the Your ABCs employees. Those Your ABCs supervisors assigned to direct work of contractor and/or subcontractor employees must instruct and otherwise provide safety equipment and conditions equivalent to those provided to payroll employees. This is to ensure that Your ABCs property is protected from damage and that all employees, payroll or non-payroll, are protected from work injury and illness. Your ABCs is required by law to make its facilities as safe as possible for the protection of the employees of its contractors and subcontractors, as well as any other visitor.
Construction safety is closely monitored by the various on-site construction supervisors, job site coordinators, superintendents, architects, engineers, government and private inspectors, contractor's and subcontractor's safety officials and Your ABCs's Responsible Safety Officer, all of whom must work closely together. Each contractor and subcontractor must supply the name of its designated safety official for that job site to Your ABCs's Responsible Safety Officer before being allowed to commence work on the site. In addition, the following definitions and procedures formalize the safety responsibilities and duties of all those persons involved with construction site management.
The following definitions describe personnel referred to in these procedures. Construction Inspector. The person assigned by Your ABCs to monitor subcontractor activities for construction compliance with the subcontract specifications and drawings. Responsible Safety Officer. The person assigned to monitor construction safety. Architect/Engineer (A/E). The person assigned by Your ABCs to ensure that a construction project is built according to contract documents and design intent may also be called Project Architect, Project Engineer, or Project Manager. Subcontractor. Firm responsible for actual construction and compliance with all safety regulations.
Responsible Safety Officer has been given the responsibility by Your ABCs and OSHA for monitoring the safety of construction site activities and enforcing all OSHA regulations. The extent of monitoring will vary depending upon the type of activity the subcontractor is engaged in. The Responsible Safety Officer role after visiting a construction site is to advise the Construction Inspector and the Architect/Engineer wherever the subcontractor is in violation of a safe practice or an unsafe condition exists. After notification by Responsible Safety Officer, the Construction Inspector and the Architect/Engineer are responsible for notifying the Subcontractor to take corrective action. The responsibility for correction of the problems rests with the Subcontractor. The Responsible Safety Officer will follow up to ensure that corrective action is being taken or had been taken by the Subcontractor. A record will be maintained by the Responsible Safety Officer giving the date, discrepancies noted, notifications given, and actions taken by the Subcontractor.
The Responsible Safety Officer is responsible for monitoring the safety performance of the Subcontractor. He/she will usually coordinate visits with the Construction Inspector, or if the Construction Inspector is not available, will carry on the monitoring activities. The Subcontractor's safety performance must be logged by the Responsible Safety Officer, and if necessary referred in writing to the Construction Inspector and the Architect/Engineer for notification to the Subcontractor and subsequent action as appropriate by the Subcontractor.
Except when responding to an emergency, personnel entering a construction site must: Identify themselves to the Construction Inspector and/or Architect/Engineer upon arrival. State the purpose of their visit and the area to be visited. Obey the on-the-job instructions, wear appropriate protective equipment, and follow any special instructions given by the Construction Inspector. Communicate with the Subcontractor only through the Construction Inspector and the Architect/Engineer. Notify the Construction Inspector when their visit is terminated. The Responsible Safety Officer visits to construction sites will normally be limited. Instructions and/or recommendations from the Responsible Safety Officer must be directed to the Subcontractor in the presence of the Construction Inspector. In cases of imminent threat to life safety or severe hazard of injury, the Responsible Safety Officer Inspector may contact the Subcontractor without the presence of the Construction Inspector. Operational problems relating to the safety will be coordinated by the Responsible Safety Officer and discussed directly with the Construction Inspector and/or with the Architect/Engineer. The Construction Inspector and the Architect/Engineer will notify the Subcontractor of the need to fulfill his responsibilities.
The Subcontractor must submit a project safety program for review and acceptance before any on-site activities. The Safety Program must be acceptable to the Responsible Safety Officer, with copies of the accepted program going to the Construction Inspector, the Architect/Engineer, and the Contract Administrator. The subcontractor must comply with all rules and the construction industry safety orders by OSHA.
The Construction Inspector must notify the Responsible Safety Officer of the subcontractor's on-site start date and discuss any unusual safety problems with the Responsible Safety Officer and the Architect/Engineer. In addition, Responsible Safety Officer and the Architect/Engineer will discuss any unusual safety problems at a construction pre-start meeting with the Subcontractor.
The Subcontractor must call the Fire Department for a burn permit and describe where and what is to be burned. A Firefighter must meet with and visit the location with the superintendent where the burning is to take place and will instruct him/her in the precautions to be taken and the placement of fire extinguishers. In case of problems, the Firefighter's first points of contact are the Construction Inspector and the Architect/Engineer. However, in case of immediate fire hazard, he/she will contact the person creating the hazard directly. Fire permits may be issued on an extended basis if appropriate.
Construction site fire safety inspections may be made at any time by any authorized representative. All discrepancies or problems observed must be in writing and addressed to the Construction Inspector and the Architect/Engineer.
The Your ABCs stop work procedure applies to all construction subcontractor activities. It must be used only where life-safety or hazard of severe injury situations exist, or where significant damage to equipment or property could occur if the operation continued. The Construction Inspector or Architect/Engineer of a construction project is responsible for directing the Subcontractor to stop an operation whenever he/she has reason to believe that continuing will lead to injury or damage to Your ABCs or Subcontractor employees or property. The Responsible Safety Officer is authorized to request the Construction Inspector to have the Subcontractor stop any operation they believe will lead to injury of Your ABCs or Subcontractor personnel or damage to Your ABCs or Subcontractor property. All work stoppages must be in writing to the Subcontractor and must reference Safety and Health or the Subcontract's General Conditions, and, if known, the appropriate OSHA regulation. A safety memorandum must be issued by the Responsible Safety Officer after each instance of stopping work, with copies to the Construction Inspector, the Architect/Engineer, and the Contract Administrator. Work must not resume until authorized by Your ABCs management. An example of a work stoppage situation would be having people working next to an upper-level edge not provided with edge barriers. A stop work notice would be issued and work would not resume until Your ABCs management was satisfied that proper barriers were in place. When issuing a stop work order, only those areas of the construction project immediately involved in the hazardous situation are included in the order. Differences of opinion between the Responsible Safety Officer and the Construction Inspector or Architect/Engineer concerning a stop work order must be immediately referred to their supervisors or department heads. The Responsible Safety Officer's recommendations must be followed until the supervisors/department heads make a decision. In the absence of the Construction Inspector, the Responsible Safety Officer must direct the Subcontractor to stop an operation that the Responsible Safety Officer considers perilous to personnel or property. The Responsible Safety Officer must locate the Construction Inspector, the Architect/Engineer, or the department head and notify them of the action taken.
In the event of a serious accident on a construction site, the Construction Inspector, Architect/Engineer, or Responsible Safety Officer will determine if all work is to be immediately stopped. If work is stopped, all workmen in the immediate area are to be assembled by the Subcontractor until the Responsible Safety Officer has conducted an initial investigation, collected applicable information from witnesses, and determined whether work may resume. The person stopping work must initiate notification of Responsible Safety Officer and Your ABCs's legal Counsel.
Subcontract personnel who plan to work in areas where they may be exposed to ionizing radiation from Your ABCs operations must receive a personal dosimeter and radiation safety training from the Responsible Safety Officer before work begins. Each dosimeter issued to Subcontractor personnel must be returned at the designated periods and at the conclusions of the job. Training will be handled on a case-by-case basis for each contract. The length of this training will range from 15 minutes to 1 hour, depending on the facility in which work is to be done. The Responsible Safety Officer must be notified of the above situation before work begins so that a determination can be made as to whether dosimeters will be issued and what radiation training will be required.
Job orders, purchase orders, and subcontracts for excavations that are 5 or more feet deep or are in unstable earth and in which people will work, must specify that shoring is required that is in compliance with 29 CFR 1926, Subpart P, Excavation, which is available from Engineering Department or the Responsible Safety Officer. If it is necessary to deviate from the requirements, a civil engineer registered by the State must submit detailed data to the Responsible Safety Officer for alternative effective shoring and sloping systems. These data shall include soil evaluations, slope stability, and estimation of forces to be resisted, together with plans and specifications of the materials and methods to be used. When sheet piling is to be used, full loading due to ground water table must be assumed unless prevented by weep holes and drains or other means. Additional stringers, uprights, and bracing must be provided to allow for any necessary temporary removal of individual supports. Excavated material must be located at least 2 ft back from the edge of excavations of 5-ft or greater depth and 1 ft back from the edge for excavations less than 5-ft deep. Sloping. Instead of a shoring system, the sides or walls of an excavation may be sloped, if this provides equivalent protection. The degree of sloping is dependent on the type of soil and the depth of excavation. Sloping requirements are shown in 29 CFR 1926, Subpart P, Appendix B. Supervision. Excavation work must always be under the immediate supervision of someone with authority and qualifications to modify the shoring system or work methods as necessary to provide greater safety. A ladder projecting 36 in. above ground surface must be provided for access and exit. Travel distance to the ladder must not exceed 25 ft.
Policy and planning for fire safety at Your ABCs takes into account the special fire hazards for specific operating areas, the protection of high-value property, and the safety of employees. These ends are met by:
§ Non-combustible or fire-rated materials and construction practices suitable to the assigned uses of buildings and facilities.
§ Alarm systems and automatic extinguishing systems.
§ Availability of suitable hand extinguishers and local hose lines for use before firefighters arrive.
§ Access to professional fire department, always staffed and trained in the control of emergencies that could occur at the Company. (The Fire Department makes the initial response to all requests for emergency aid received on the emergency telephone number, 911.)
This chapter covers the fire safety responsibilities of employees and supervisors and sets forth the fire safety rules and procedures.
The Community Fire Department is responsible for protecting people and property from fires, explosions, and other hazards through prevention and expeditious control of such events. In addition, the Fire Department provides first-response rescue and transportation services in medical emergencies. The Fire Department's inspection staff is responsible for ensuring company-wide compliance with fire safety and protection requirements and for reviewing all plans and procedures for compliance with these requirements; for inspecting and testing automatic fire protection and alarm systems and ensuring their maintenance and repair; for conducting fire safety and protection inspections; and for providing fire prevention recommendations. Other responsibilities include training employees in fire safety equipment, practices, and procedures. All these fire protection and response functions are performed in conformance with OSHA regulations, State law, Your ABCs policies, and nationally recognized standards and guidelines for fire and life safety.
The Fire Chief and the Fire Marshall have the authority to enforce applicable requirements of the Uniform Building Code; the Uniform Fire Code; National Fire Protection Association Codes (including the Life Safety Code), Standards, and Recommended Practices; and the fire protection provisions of OSHA Orders. All employees must immediately report fires, smoke, or potential fire hazards to the Fire Department (dial 911). All employees must conduct their operations in such a way as to minimize the possibility of fire. This means applying rules such as keeping combustibles separated from ignition sources, being careful about smoking, and avoiding needless accumulations of combustible materials. Supervisors are responsible for keeping their operating areas safe from fire.
The Responsible Safety Officer and the Fire Department will provide guidance and construction criteria with respect to fire and life safety as well as inspections. The provision and maintenance of fire detection systems and both automatic and manual fire extinguishing equipment is the responsibility of the Responsible Safety Officer. But the supervisor, who best knows the day-to-day nature of his/her operations, is responsible for notifying the Responsible Safety Officer of operations that change the degree of fire risk and will therefore require a change in the planned fire protection provisions.
Supervisors must ensure that their personnel are properly instructed regarding potential fire hazards involved in their work and around their workplaces, the proper precautions to minimize fires, and the procedures in case of fire. The local Fire Department and the Responsible Safety Officer also offer formal courses and training materials on fire prevention and response:
§ Fire Safety
§ Fire-Extinguisher Operation
§ Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
Class A combustibles are common materials such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber, plastics, etc. Fires in any of these fuels can be extinguished with water as well as other agents specified for Class A fires. They are the most common fuels to be found in non-specialized operating areas of the work place such as offices. Safe handling of Class A combustibles means: Disposing of waste daily. Keeping work area clean and free of fuel paths, which can spread a fire, once started. Keeping combustibles away from accidental ignition sources such as hot plates, soldering irons, or other heat or spark-producing devices. Keeping all rubbish, trash, or other waste in metal or metal-lined receptacles with tight-fitting covers when in or adjacent to buildings. (Exception: wastebaskets of metal or of other material and design approved for such use, which are emptied each day, need not be covered.) Using safe ash trays for disposal of smoking materials and making sure that the contents are extinguished and cold to the touch before emptying them into a safe receptacle. Planning the use of combustibles in any operation so that excessive amounts need not be stored. Storing paper stock in metal cabinets and rags in metal bins with automatically closing lids. Making frequent inspections and checks for noncompliance with these rules in order to catch fires in the potential stage.
Class B combustibles are flammable and combustible liquids (including oils, greases, tars, oil-base paints, lacquers) and flammable gases. Flammable aerosols (spray cans) are treated here. Cryogenic and pressurized flammable gases are treated elsewhere in this manual. The use of water to extinguish Class B fires (by other than trained firefighters) can cause the burning liquid to spread carrying the fire with it. Flammable-liquid fires are usually best extinguished by excluding the air around the burning liquid. Generally, this is accomplished by using one of several approved types of fire-extinguishing agents, such as the following: Carbon dioxide ABC multipurpose dry chemical Halon 1301 (used in built-in, total-flood systems) Halon 1211 (used in portable extinguishers) Fires involving flammable gases are usually controlled by eliminating the source of fuel, i.e., closing a valve. Technically, flammable and combustible liquids do not burn. However, under appropriate conditions, they generate sufficient quantities of vapors to form ignitable vapor-air mixtures. As a general rule, the lower the flash point of a liquid, the greater the fire and explosion hazard. It should be noted that many flammable and combustible liquids also pose health hazards. NOTE: The flash point of a liquid is the minimum temperature at which it gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with the air near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that all Class B combustibles are properly identified, labeled, handled, and stored. If assistance is required, contact the Responsible Safety Office. Safe handling of Class B combustibles means: Using only approved containers, tanks, equipment, and apparatus for the storage, handling, and use of Class B combustibles. Making sure that all containers are conspicuously and accurately labeled as to their contents. Dispensing liquids from tanks, drums, barrels, or similar containers only through approved pumps taking suction from the top or through approved self-closing valves or faucets. Storing, handling, and using Class B combustibles only in approved locations, where vapors cannot reach any source of ignition, including heating equipment, electrical equipment, oven flame, mechanical or electrical sparks, etc. Never clean with flammable liquids within a building except in a closed machine approved for that purpose. Never storing, handling, or using Class B combustibles in or near exists, stairways, or other areas normally used for egress. In rooms or buildings, storing flammable liquids in excess of 10 gallons in approved storage cabinets or special rooms approved for the purpose. Knowing the locations of the nearest portable fire extinguishers rated for Class B fires and how to use them. Never smoking, welding, cutting, grinding, using an open flame or unsafe electrical appliances or equipment, or otherwise creating heat that could ignite vapors near any Class B combustibles.
There are many combustible materials, including electrical equipment, oxidizing chemicals, fast-reacting or explosive compounds, and flammable metals, which present specialized fire safety and extinguishing problems. Refer to other appropriate chapters of this manual for safe handling advice. If in doubt, request advice from the Responsible Safety Officer.
As part of the local Fire Department's program to control and reduce fire hazards, a permit system is in effect to cover welding, burning, or other operations with a high fire hazard. Typically, operations that require a permit are: Welding (arc, oxyacetylene, or heliarc) Soldering (which requires an open flame) Use of a torch (for cutting, bending, forming, etc.) Use of tar pots (for road work or roofing, etc.) Open fires for any purpose Spray painting To obtain additional information or to request a permit for these operations, call the Fire Department on it business line, not the emergency 911 number.
The use of these devices, whether privately or company owned, is allowed only where there is no chance of causing injury to personnel or of creating a fire hazard. This provision obviously requires common sense in safely locating such devices and ensuring that they do not operate when they are unattended. These devices may not be used in locations where: Flammable or explosive vapors or dusts may be present. Smoking, eating, or drinking are prohibited because toxic or radioactive materials may be present. The area has been designated as unsafe for such devices. The following practices should be carried out when operating portable heating appliances: Do not place the appliance on unstable or readily combustible materials. Maintain a clearance of at least 12 inches between the appliance and combustible materials. Ensure that the appliance is approved by either Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., or Factory Mutual Research Corporation. Connect the appliance directly to a proper electrical outlet using only the cord with which it was originally equipped. Do not use extension cords in lieu of permanent wiring. Do not operate appliances during off hours if they are unattended unless they are controlled by a timer installed by an Your ABCs electrician. The timer will automatically de-energize the appliance during off hours and energize it not more than 30 minutes before the arrival of personnel. If 24 hour operation is desirable, the proposed operation and arrangement must be reviewed by the local Fire Department and a permit obtained. This permit must be posted near the operating appliance for the information of off-shift personnel who may be checking the area.
This section describes the fixed and portable equipment that is provided in working areas for fire protection. The fixed equipment includes automatic sprinklers, detectors and alarms, fire doors, etc. The portable equipment consists of fire extinguishers and hoses to be operated by employees before the arrival of the local Fire Department.
Several types of automatic fire detectors are used throughout Your ABCs, according to particular needs and purposes. All of them will detect fire (by one of several means) and transmit an alarm to the fire station. In the many buildings equipped with evacuation alarm bells, the automatic detectors activate those alarms, as do the manual pull boxes. In some cases, automatic extinguishing systems are activated by automatic detectors. The Fire Department always dispatches firefighters and apparatus to the scene of any automatically actuated alarm.
Many buildings are provided with automatic sprinkler systems. The sprinkler heads contain a fusible element (most commonly fused at 212 degrees F) which, on melting, opens the head and starts a spray of water. The resulting flow of water in the piping activates an alarm at the fire station, and firefighters are dispatched. Automatic sprinkler heads can be damaged if they are subjected to mechanical abuse. A protective cage should be installed where such damage is possible. Heat inadvertently applied to the sprinkler head can also activate the sprinkler when no actual fire is present. Normal heat sources should therefore be kept away from sprinkler heads. To avoid decreasing the flow or spread of water or altering the spray pattern, do not allow material or furniture to be located too near the sprinkler head. Allow at least 18 inches of clearance around sprinkler heads. Sprinkler system control valves must be kept accessible for Fire Department use. Allow at least 3 feet of clearance (enough for a man to pass through easily) around such valves.
In most buildings, evacuation alarm bells are automatically activated when fire is detected. They can also be activated manually at strategically located pull boxes. The emergency actions of personnel and the evacuation procedures for each building or operating area are usually set forth in the Operational Safety Procedures for each building and posted near the main entrance or fire exit or elevator. Never use the elevator in case of a fire.
Automatic fire doors and dampers are provided at strategic points to close and block the spread of smoke and fire when these are sensed by automatic detectors. Automatic fire doors must never be blocked or left in disrepair so that they cannot close and latch automatically as intended in the event of a fire. Self-closing fire doors are those doors designed and installed to close each time after being opened. They too must never be blocked, wedged, or tied open. If such doors must be kept open, the self-closers must be replaced with approved automatic smoke-activated release hold-open devices.
Exit corridors must not be used for storage. The Life Safety Code, NFPA 101, requires that buildings designed for human occupancy must have continuous and unobstructed exits to permit prompt evacuation of the occupants and allow necessary access for responding emergency personnel. The intent of the Code is to keep exits free from obstructions and clear of combustible materials. Attention to housekeeping, therefore, is very important. Temporary storage of furniture, equipment, supplies, or anything else is not permitted in exit ways. Combustibles, including recyclable waste paper, are not permitted in exit ways. Metal lockers with ends and tops ferried to the walls and that do not interfere with minimum exit width requirements may be installed in exit corridors when approved by the Fire Department and the Responsible Safety Officer.
The following requirements must be met for storage locker/cabinets: Cabinets will be permitted on one side of the corridor only. Cabinets must end at least 6 ft from the corridor exit door. Cabinet ends must be at least 12 in. from the edge of the doorway on the latch side and from the edge of the door leaf when fully opened into the corridor. The cabinets must not be more than 20 in. deep by 37 in. wide by 72-3/4 in. high. The cabinets must be all metal construction with positive latches to prevent spillage of contents in the event of an earthquake. All doors must return automatically to the closed position when not held open manually. A 45 degree-angle fairing must be provided from the wall to the corridor corner of the cabinet. Fairing must be provided at both ends of cabinet or bank of cabinets.
*A 45 degree-angle fairing must be provided at the top of the cabinets from the outside corridor edge of cabinet to the wall. All cabinets must be anchored to the wall firmly enough to withstand 0.5g of lateral acceleration (or a lateral load equal to 1/2 the total dead weight of the cabinet and its contents) in the event of an earthquake. Liquids and chemicals are not to be stored in corridor lockers. All cabinets must be kept locked, with one key being retained by the Building Manager. All cabinets must be labeled with the contents and the name, address, and telephone number of the assigned user. Any deviation from the above requirements must be approved by Responsible Safety Officer.
Fire hydrants are maintained for emergency use by the Fire Department. They must be kept accessible and in good working condition. Certain temporary uses may be authorized in writing by the Chief or Assistant Chief of the Fire Department. An example of such temporary use may be connection by construction contractors. When temporary connections are authorized, the following practices must be observed: Use only valved outlets. Use only a hydrant spanner provided by the Fire Department. (Other types of wrench can damage the wrench flats on the valve stem.) Do not leave connections in place unattended, except at construction sites. Close a hydrant valve 1/8th turn after fully opening it. (This is done so that a person mistakenly turning the valve the wrong way will not cause damage by forcing it.) When replacing the outlet caps after using a hydrant, screw them on only hand-tight.
Mechanical equipment rooms contain boilers, blowers, compressors, filters, electrical equipment, etc. Such rooms must be separated from other areas of a building by fire-resistant walls and doors. To maintain the integrity of these separations, the fire doors must never be left open. Fan rooms house ventilation equipment which often includes automatic shut down and dampers activated by interlocking with the building smoke and fire detectors. Fire dampers and other automatic shut-down provisions must not be disabled without Fire Department approval (as for temporary maintenance procedures). Mechanical equipment rooms and fan rooms must not be used for storage of any kind.
Construction areas under control of either Your ABCs or outside contractors must be maintained in a fire-safe condition and accessible to emergency response forces.
The Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 101, requires that emergency lighting be provided for means of egress in certain areas. The Code states emergency lighting is required in exit corridors in any office-type building where the building is two or more stories in height above the level of exit discharge. In industrial occupancies such as laboratories and shops, the Code requires emergency lighting in all exit aisles, corridors, and passageways. Emergency lighting may be installed in areas where not required by the Code when such areas present an egress hazard during a power failure. Although elevators are not considered a means of egress within the jurisdiction of the Life Safety Code, they do require emergency lighting. (Titles 8 and 24 require that emergency lighting be maintained in an elevator for a period of at least four hours.) Several types of emergency lights that satisfy the specifications of the Life Safety Code are: Battery Type - Only rechargeable batteries may be used. The rating of the battery must be such that it provides power for illumination for one and one-half hours in the event of a failure of normal lighting. Generator Type - When emergency lighting is provided by an electric generator, a delay of not more than 10 seconds is permitted. Exit sign lights, when burned out, should be reported to Maintenance for service.
Exit corridors must not be used for storage. The Life Safety Code, NFPA 101, requires that buildings designed for human occupancy must have continuous and unobstructed exits to permit prompt evacuation of the occupants and allow necessary access for responding emergency personnel. The intent of the Code is to keep exits free from obstructions and clear of combustible materials. Attention to housekeeping, therefore, is very important. "Temporary" storage of furniture, equipment, supplies, or anything else is not permitted in exit ways. Combustibles, including recyclable waste paper, are not permitted in exit ways. Metal lockers with ends and tops ferried to the walls and that do not interfere with minimum exit width requirements may be installed in exit corridors when approved by the Fire Department and the Responsible Safety Officer. The following requirements must be met for storage locker/cabinets: Cabinets will be permitted on one side of the corridor only. Cabinets must end at least 6 ft from the corridor exit door. Cabinet ends must be at least 12 in. from the edge of the doorway on the latch side and from the edge of the door leaf when fully opened into the corridor. The cabinets must not be more than 20 in. deep by 37 in. wide by 72-3/4 in. high. The cabinets must be all metal construction with positive latches to prevent spillage of contents in the event of an earthquake. All doors must return automatically to the closed position when not held open manually. A 45 degree-angle fairing must be provided from the wall to the corridor corner of the cabinet. Fairing must be provided at both ends of cabinet or bank of cabinets.
* A 45 degree-angle fairing must be provided at the top of the cabinets from the outside corridor edge of cabinet to the wall. All cabinets must be anchored to the wall firmly enough to withstand 0.5g of lateral acceleration (or a lateral load equal to 1/2 the total dead weight of the cabinet and its contents) in the event of an earthquake. Liquids and chemicals are not to be stored in corridor lockers. All cabinets must be kept locked, with one key being retained by the Building Manager. All cabinets must be labeled with the contents and the name, address, and telephone number of the assigned user. Any deviation from the above requirements must be approved by Responsible Safety Officer.
Smoking is forbidden in certain areas for fire safety reasons. Such areas include the following: Where flammable gases or liquids are stored, handled, or used. Where significant quantities of combustible materials, such as paper, wood, cardboard, or plastics are stored, handled, or used. Where liquid- or gaseous-oxygen is stored, handled, or used. Within 20 ft of a smoke detector. In tape and record storage vaults and computer equipment areas. Areas that are designated "No Smoking" areas for fire safety reasons are indicated by large rectangular signs consisting of white backgrounds with red letters stating NO SMOKING.
If you cant cook, send out for a pizza. haha
What is Kitchen Safety? It's keeping your kitchen accident-free as you cut, chop, slice, dice, mince, mix and perform other kitchen-related duties. The safety rules presented in this chapter can help prevent accidents that might lead to: Pain and discomfort from cuts, bumps, bruises, burns and more serious mishaps. Disruptions in work schedules, vacation plans and social life. Financial problems due to lost wages and unexpected medical bills.
Are Kitchen Accidents really Preventable? Yes... if youre willing to follow a recipe for safety. Kitchen safety is a blend of these basic ingredients: Know-How - Smart workers learn to use equipment the right way. Common Sense - Sensible workers avoid taking dangerous shortcuts and unnecessary risks. A "Can-Do" Attitude - Positive people believe that they can prevent accidents, and they do! Learn more about how you can make safety a specialty of the house.
To help maintain a firm footing in the kitchen, pay special attention to: Floor Surfaces - a slip on a banana peel may create a comic television scene, but in "real life" a slip can be dangerous. To prevent slipping: Clean up any dropped food, spilled liquids and grease immediately. Wear properly fitted, slip-resistant shoes. Clean entire floor thoroughly with a degreasing agent each night. Post a "wet floor" sign when necessary, to alert others to slippery conditions. Aisles/Walkways - Anyone who works in a kitchen understands the need for unobstructed aisles and walkways. Many tripping accidents can be prevented if you: Keep passageways free of carts, boxes, trash cans, mop buckets and other obstacles. Close oven doors immediately after inserting or removing food. To avoid other possible dangers, make sure that you: Use the proper equipment (step stools, stepladders) for reaching upper shelves. Never climb on shelves, boxes or chairs. Don't run or engage in horseplay. Tell your supervisor about any condition that could cause a fall (such as a loose tile, spilled liquids, and inadequate lighting). Remember--people never plan to have accidents, but they can plan to avoid them!
Cuts and bruises are a common type of kitchen injury. But, you can avoid them by being extra careful with: Knives. Remember to: Keep knives sharp, since dull knives slip easier than sharp ones. Choose the proper knife for the job. Use a cutting board. Wipe knives clean by moving your cloth from the dull edge to the sharp edge. Cut away from your body, and don't hack. (Wear cut-resistant gloves, as recommended.) Let falling knives fall. (Never attempt to catch them!) Store knives in their proper places.
Dishes/Glasses. To avoid breakage: Store glasses and cups upside down. (Never stack them.) Don't pick up several glasses in one hand by inserting your fingers into the glasses. Never put glassware in a sink used for washing pots. If you break a glass item: Use a broom and dustpan, or a damp paper or cloth, (not your bare hands) to pick up the pieces. Drain water before trying to remove glass from a sink. Label some paper with the word glass. Then wrap the glass in the paper, and discard in the proper receptacle.
Machinery. Be sure that you: Operate machines only if you're trained and authorized. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for safe operation. Wear a hair net if you have long hair. Keep all guards on equipment. Turn off the switch, and pull the plug before you clean or adjust equipment. Use special care when operating rotating choppers and vertical cutter mixers. Use a wooden tamper when operating food choppers and meat grinders. Avoid putting your hands inside a garbage disposal. (If you must retrieve an object, make sure the power is off!)
To avoid other possible hazards, remember to: Wear gloves, and watch for nails, wires and splinters, if you must handle crates. Use a stiff brush for scrubbing. Steel wool can cause cuts. Wear cut-resistant gloves when cleaning slicers. Remove can lids completely. Pull don't push carts through doorways. Keep the work area clean and orderly.
Follow the manufacturer's instructions for the proper use and care of every piece of equipment. Take special precautions with ovens, ranges, steam tables, fryers, pressure cookers, dishwashers, and cleaning agents. Here's how: Ovens: Be especially careful when lighting a gas oven. First, make sure the pilot is lit. Then, stand to one side as you light the oven. Get help when removing heavy pans from hot ovens. Use dry mitts or potholders.
Assume that all objects on the range (and the range itself) are hot. Use dry mitts or potholders to move pots, pans, etc. Keep utensil handles away from burners, and don't let handles stick out beyond the range's edge. Please ask for help if you must move a heavy container full of hot liquid or food. Direct steam away from you when removing the lid of a pot or pan, by raising the far edge of the lid with a mitt or potholder.
Tilt food containers away from you as you insert them into the well. Avoid reaching across steam tables when serving food. Turn off the valves when the tables aren't in use. Be sure the equipment is cool before cleaning it. Fryers: Keep grease from building up on fryer and frying area. Do not overfill. Fill to the mark, or not more than 3 inches from the top of the fryer to prevent overflows. Be especially careful when filtering fat.
Use these devices only if you have properly trained. Keep a close watch on gauges. Always vent the pressure cooker before opening. Dishwashers: Avoid handling very hot dishes with your bare hands. Turn off the steam, and allow the dishwasher to cool before cleaning it. (Spray cold water on the interior to speed the cooling process.) Cleaning Agents can cause burns and other hazards. To avoid possible problems, carefully follow the manufacturer's instructions for their use, and never mix cleaning agents.
Ease the strain of lifting and moving objects. Muscle and back injuries can be very painful. To help prevent them, follow these guidelines for lifting and carrying, handling heavy or bulky materials, using team lifting, and lifting over your head.
Stand close to the object with feet spread for balance. Don't twist your body to get into position. Squat down, keeping your back straight and your knees bent. Grasp the object firmly. Breathe in to inflate your lungs. (This helps support your spine.) Lift smoothly with your legs, slowly straightening them. Then return your back to a vertical position. Hold the object firmly and close to your body as you carry it. Turn by moving your feet, not by twisting your body.
Use dollies or hand trucks for moving materials packed in bulky burlap sacks, crates, boxes and barrels. Store heavy, bulky materials on lower shelves, or on pallets. This eliminates the need to lift heavy objects over your head and makes materials easy to reach. "Team" Lifting: Two or more people should work together any time an object must be placed high on a shelf or can't be easily handled by one person. To help ensure that the lift proceeds smoothly, one person should give the signals. Lifting over your head is usually a two-person task. One person may be able to lift a box from the floor to waist level quite easily, because this movement relies on leg muscles. But it may take two people to lift the same box to an overhead shelf, because this motion uses weaker arm and back muscles. (Avoid storing heavy or bulky items on top shelves.)
Don't let electricity shock you! The same electricity that powers so many work-saving appliances can be deadly, unless you treat it with respect. Unplug cords properly by grasping the plug (not the cord) and pulling. Report defective plugs, as well as frayed, worn or broken cords to your supervisor. Don't overload circuits by inserting too many plugs into a single outlet. This could cause an electrical fire. Check ground connections on all electrical appliances. Equipment should be grounded with a 3-prong plug or a separate ground wire. Be sure your hands are dry and your feet aren't in contact with any water, whenever you operate electrical appliances. Clean equipment only after you've turned off the switch and pulled the plug.
Take stock of your fire safety know-how. Thousands of kitchen fires are reported each year. For safety's sake, be familiar with evacuation procedures, how to put out small fires, fire extinguisher use, and prevention techniques. Evacuation Procedures: Plan an escape route that includes at least two fire exits. Know the location of fire alarms. Don't hesitate to use them in emergencies. Post the telephone numbers of emergency response personnel where you can find them quickly.
Extinguish cooking fires by turning off the range, covering the pan, and removing it from the burner. Smother oven fires by closing the oven door and turning off the heat.
Know the location of fire extinguishers and know how to use them. Always leave yourself a clear escape path. Have someone call the fire department. (Fire fighting is best handled by trained professionals.) Know the correct type of fire extinguisher to use for each type of fire. Some Prevention Techniques: Clean range hoods and ducts regularly. Keep convection ovens clean. Keep the range free of spilled fats, sugar, sauces, etc. Clean broiler trays containing grease drippings immediately after use. Store combustible materials away from heat sources. Never take chances! If your safety is threatened, get out quickly!
Know the location of the first-aid cabinet, how to get medical help and how to give basic first aid for cuts, burns, chemicals in the eye, fractures, electrical shock, and sprains and strains.
Cuts - Control bleeding by applying direct pressure and elevating the injured area (if there is evidence of a fracture). Burns - Immerse minor burns in cold water. Then cover the area with a clean, dry dressing. Do not apply butter, ointment or any homemade remedy.
Chemicals in the Eye - Flood eye with water for 15 minutes. Then cover eye with dry dressing and get medical help immediately.
Fractures - Prevent movement of the injured part, treat for shock, and get medical help as quickly as possible.
Electrical Shock - Turn off the power by pulling the plug or flipping the switch to OFF. Never use wet hands. Then, give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and CPR, if necessary and if you are trained to do so. Treat for shock and get medical aid.
Sprains & Strains - To reduce swelling, apply an ice pack or ice wrapped in a cloth. Bandage the area (but not too tightly), and elevate the injured part. Do not hesitate to get immediate medical assistance if an accident occurs. Promptly report all injuries to your supervisor.
Your ABCs provides hand and powered portable tools that meet accepted safety standards. A damaged or malfunctioning tool must not be used; it must be turned in for servicing and a tool in good condition obtained to complete the job. Employees must use the correct tool for the work to be performed; if they are unfamiliar with the operation of the tool, they must request instruction from their supervisor before starting the job. Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that their subordinates are properly trained in the operation of any tool that they are expected to operate. An employee is not permitted to use a powder-actuated tool unless instructed and licensed by the manufacturer.
Tools that are not double-insulated must be effectively grounded and tested. Testing must be accomplished before initial issue, after repairs, and after any incident that could cause damage, such as dropping or exposure to a wet environment. Grounded tools must always be used with an effectively grounded circuit. Any extension cord used with a grounded tool must be a three-wire, grounded type. Electric-powered hand tools used on construction sites, on temporary wired circuits, or in wet environments will be used in conjunction with an approved ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI). The responsibility for implementing and maintaining this program rests with the individual supervisors involved. Tool testing equipment will be maintained by the Responsible Safety Officer. Documentation of tool testing will be maintained by the group owning powered hand tools. Tools maintained in a tool crib and tested prior to issue are exempted from this requirement. Repairs of defective tools will only be made by qualified electrical personnel.
Any Your ABCs facility housing shop tools is defined by OSHA as a shop. It is the responsibility of the person in charge of each shop to ensure compliance with the following practices: Shop machines and tools are to be used only by qualified personnel. It is the responsibility of the person in charge of the shop to render a judgment as to who is qualified. The person in charge will take whatever action is deemed necessary to prevent a personal injury or damage to equipment. Equipment guards and protective devices must be used and must not be compromised. Approved eye protection (visitor's glasses) must be worn by anyone entering and/or passing through shop areas. Approved industrial safety eye protection must be worn by anyone working in a posted shop area. Shoes or boots covering the whole foot must be worn in shop areas. Persons using machine tools must not wear clothing, jewelry, or long hair in such a way as to represent a safety hazard.
Traffic & Transportation
The speed limit on Your ABCs property is 25 miles per hour. However, conditions such as road repair, wet weather, poor visibility, and pedestrian traffic may require speeds much lower than 25 mph. All traffic laws are strictly enforced. As a result of high density traffic, limited parking, and general congestion, it is recommended that shuttle buses and transportation services be used whenever possible. These services are convenient and reduce exposure to potential motor vehicle accidents.
The Your ABCs requires that an operator hold a valid driver's license for the class of vehicle that he/she is authorized to operate. Persons intending to operate forklifts are required to successfully complete the appropriate course as outlined in this manual.
Each Division Director and Department Head is responsible for restricting the use of Company-furnished vehicles to official Company business only. They are also responsible for limiting use of such vehicles to properly authorized personnel. Use of an official vehicle for an employee's personal convenience or benefit constitutes misuse and is prohibited. Employees who misuse Company vehicles are subject to disciplinary action and financial responsibility for any accident. All drivers of Company vehicles are responsible for reporting any damage or deficiency to the Motor Pool. Repairs, adjustments, and maintenance can only be accomplished if the driver adequately documents and reports these items. Failure to report unsafe vehicle conditions can result in an accident.
Employees operating or riding in company-furnished vehicles, or personal vehicles on official company business, are required to wear safety belts at all times. The driver should instruct the passengers to fasten their safety belts before operating the vehicle.
Any accident involving Company vehicles (included private, rented, or leased vehicles used on official Company business) must be reported to the driver's supervisor. If the driver is unable to make a report, another employee who knows the details of the accident must make the report. It is Your ABCss policy that employees should not admit to responsibility for vehicle accidents occurring while on official business. It is important that such admissions, when appropriate, be reserved for the company and its insurance carrier. The law requires that each driver involved in a vehicle accident must show his/her license on request by the other party. Be sure to obtain adequate information on the drivers involved as well as on the owner of the vehicles. Names, addresses, driver's license numbers, vehicle descriptions, and registration information are essential. In addition, a description of damages is needed for completion of accident reports. If the accident is investigated by off-site police agencies, request that a copy of the police report be sent to Your ABCs, or obtain the name and department of the investigating officer. A printed card titled In Case of Accident is kept in each official vehicle to assist in collecting required information. In case of collision with an unattended vehicle (or other property), the driver of the moving vehicle is required by law to notify the other party and to exchange information pertaining to the collision. If unable to locate the other party, leave a note in, or attached to, the vehicle (or other property) giving the driver's name, address, and vehicle license number. The driver of any Your ABCs vehicle involved in an accident must also complete a Company Motor Vehicle Accident Report and submit it to his/her supervisor within one work day of the accident. The supervisor should interview the driver and complete the supervisor's portion of the report. Within two work days of the accident, the completed form and vehicle must be taken to the Administration Office so that damages may be estimated and repairs scheduled. Forms for obtaining appropriate information about an accident are carried in the vehicle or may be obtained from Administration. The Responsible Safety Officer will receive copies of all accident reports and will prepare any required OSHA reports.
Any operator of a vehicle at Your ABCs who violates the State Vehicle Code may be issued a written warning or citation. A warning will include a description of the violation and cite the relevant code section, date, time, location, and the name of the officer issuing the warning. A person who receives such a warning will be called to meet with the Responsible Safety Officer. If more than one warning is issued in a six-month period, the Responsible Safety Officer will normally suspend the offender's driving and parking privileges at the Company. The first suspension will be for a period of one month. If there is a repeat violation, the period of suspension will be for six months. Serious offenses may result in revocation of privileges and may include termination of employment.
The Safety Committee reviews all accidents involving Company-furnished vehicles, whether on site or off site, and makes recommendations to have safety hazards corrected. The committee meets periodically to review accidents or to review and consider other issues relating to traffic safety. The committee is also the hearing board for drivers who are involved in vehicle accidents or who have received a warning notice for a moving violation, as noted above. Such drivers may appear before this committee to explain causes of accidents or violations.
Here are the parking designations in use at Your ABCs:
§ Red Zones: No stopping, standing, or parking.
§ Yellow Zones: Stopping only for the purpose of loading or unloading passengers or freight.
§ Green Zones: Limited time parking.
§ Government Vehicles: Official vehicles only.
§ Reserved Parking: Vehicle with designated license number only.
§ Time Zone Lanes: All vehicles must be prepared to move at the time indicated.
§ Compact Car: Vehicle must not extend beyond rear limit line.
§ General Parking: Vehicles must be parked in designated places only and must not extend beyond the edge of road, stripes, or rear limit lines.
Violators of the above parking rules will be issued a warning notice, order-to-show cause, or citation.
The objective of this chapter is to provide guidance to all Your ABCs employees and participating guests who use hazardous materials so that they may perform their work safely. Many of these materials are specifically explosive, corrosive, flammable, or toxic; they may have properties that combine these hazards. Many chemicals are relatively non-hazardous by themselves but become dangerous when they interact with other substances, either in planned experiments or by accidental contact. To avoid injury and/or property damage, persons who handle chemicals in any area of the Company must understand the hazardous properties of the chemicals with which they will be working. Before using a specific chemical, safe handling methods must always be reviewed. Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that the equipment needed to work safely with chemicals is provided. The cost of this equipment is borne by the Company.
On May 25, 1986 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) placed in effect the requirements of a new standard called Hazard Communication (29 CFR 1910.1200). This standard establishes requirements to ensure that chemical hazards in the workplace are identified and that this information, along with information on protective measures, is transmitted to all affected employees. This section describes how Your ABCs employees are informed of the potential chemical hazards in their work area so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Components of this program include labeling, preparing a material safety data sheet (MSDS), and training.
With regard to MSDS, Your ABCs has limited coverage under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. The Company is required to maintain only those sheets that are received with incoming shipments for the following reasons: the Company commonly uses small quantities of many different hazardous materials for short periods of time; that the hazards change, often unpredictably; many materials are of unknown composition and most workers are highly trained.
Ensure hazards are properly labeled. Obtain/maintain copies of material safety data sheets, as required, of each hazardous material used in the work area and make them accessible to employees during each work shift. Have the written Hazard Communication Program available to all employees. Provide hazard-specific training for employees. Identify hazardous materials in the hazard review section of the Your ABCs purchase requisition form. Employees must: Attend safety training meetings. Perform operations in safe manner. Notify management immediately of any safety hazards or injuries. When ordering materials, identify hazardous chemicals in the hazard review section of the Your ABCs purchase requisition form. The Responsible Safety Officer must: Develop a written Hazard Communication Program. Maintain a central file of material safety data sheets. Review and update Your ABCs stock safety labels. Provide generic training programs. Assist supervisors in developing hazard-specific training programs. Oversee the Hazard Communication Standard written policy and implementation plans. Alert on-site contractors to hazardous materials in work areas. Alert on-site contractors that they must provide to their employees information on hazardous materials they bring to the work site. The number of hazardous chemicals and the number of reactions between them is so large that prior knowledge of all potential hazards cannot be assumed. Therefore, when the chemical properties of a material are not fully known, it should be assumed hazardous and used in as small quantities as possible to minimize exposure and thus reduce the magnitude of unexpected events. The following general safety precautions should be observed when working with chemicals: Keep the work area clean and orderly. Use the necessary safety equipment. Carefully label every container with the identity of its contents and appropriate hazard warnings.
Substitute less toxic materials whenever possible. Limit the volume of volatile or flammable material to the minimum needed for short operation periods. Provide means of containing the material if equipment or containers should break or spill their contents. Follow the requirements of this manual, if systems that can generate pressure or are operated under pressure are involved. Provide a back-up method of shutting off power to a heat source if any hazard is involved. Obtain and read the Material Safety Data Sheets.
Each task that requires the use of chemicals must be evaluated to determine the potential hazards associated with the work. This hazard evaluation must include the chemical or combination of chemicals that will be used in the work, as well as other materials that will be used near the work. If a malfunction during the operation has the potential to cause serious injury or property damage, an Operational Safety Procedure (OSP) must be prepared and followed. Operations must be planned to minimize the generation of hazardous wastes. Additionally, unused chemicals should be recycled.
Supervisors are responsible for establishing safe procedures and for ensuring that the protective equipment needed to work with the chemicals is available. Supervisors must instruct their workers about possible hazards, safety precautions that must be observed, possible consequences of an accident, and procedures to follow if an accident does occur. The supervisor is required to enforce the proper use of protective equipment and the established safety practices. It is the responsibility of employees and all who use Your ABCs facilities to understand the properties of the chemicals with which they will work and to follow all precautions that apply to each specific task. When faced with an unexpected threat of malfunction, injury, or damage, employees are expected to choose a course of action that provides the most protection to themselves and to others in the area. Every employee is expected to report to the supervisor any unsafe condition seen in the area that would not permit him/her to work safely. The Responsible Safety Officer assists employees and supervisors to work safely by providing information on the hazardous properties of materials, recommending methods for controlling the hazards of specific operations, and by monitoring the work environment. Supervisors must instruct their personnel about the potential hazards involved in the work, proper safety precautions to follow, and emergency procedures to use if an accident should occur. To supplement the supervisor's training, the Responsible Safety Officer will conduct training courses and materials on selected topics. In addition, material safety data sheets and safety information, including hazards, health effects, potential routes of exposure, proper handling precautions, and emergency procedures on specific chemicals, are available through the Responsible Safety Officer's office.
Both men and women may be exposed to hazardous agents that can cause infertility or result in genetic damage that is passed on to offspring. These agents include ionizing radiation, alcohol, cigarette smoke, pharmaceuticals, and some of the thousands of different chemicals that are used in the home or workplace. Although many of these have been tested to determine whether they cause acute (immediate) effects on the body, few have been studied to see if they cause cancer (carcinogens), birth defects (teratogens), or genetic defects (mutagens). Even fewer have been studied to see if they can cause infertility, menstrual disorders, or other disorders relating to reproduction. The primary path for hazardous substances to reach an unborn child is through the placenta. Scientists now believe that most chemical substances or drugs can cross this barrier with varying degrees of ease and enter the system of the developing fetus. Thus, many chemicals and drugs that enter a pregnant woman's body (through breathing, swallowing, absorption through the skin, etc.) will eventually enter the mother's blood circulation and find their way into the unborn child. In general, the important questions of exactly how much of the toxic substance that enters the mother's body will reach the fetus or what concentration the fetus can tolerate without harmful effects are not yet answered. The fetus may be most vulnerable in the early weeks of pregnancy, but it is also at risk later in pregnancy. In light of the potential harm of workplace exposures to both a pregnant woman and her developing fetus, it is very important and required by Your ABCs policy for the woman to inform the Responsible Safety Officer of her pregnancy immediately.
Exposures by inhalation of airborne contaminants (gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists) must not exceed the levels listed in the latest edition of Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants (TLV) published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. These TLV levels refer to airborne concentrations of substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect. In all cases of potentially harmful exposure, feasible engineering or administrative controls must first be established. In cases where respiratory protective equipment, alone or with other control measures, is required to protect the employee, the protective equipment must be approved by the Responsible Safety Officer, for each specific use.
Eyewash fountains are required if the substance in use presents an eye hazard. The eyewash fountain must provide a soft stream or spray of aerated water. In areas where a corrosive chemical or rapid fire hazard exists, safety showers must be provided for immediate first aid treatment of chemical splashes and for extinguishing clothing fires. The shower must be capable of drenching the victim immediately in the event of an emergency. Eyewash fountains and safety showers should be located close to each other so that, if necessary, the eyes can be washed while the body is showered. Access to these facilities must always remain open. In case of accident, flush the affected part for at least 15 minutes. Report the accident to the Responsible Safety Officer immediately. A special first aid treatment kit for fluorine and hydrofluoric acid burns is prepared by the Medical Services Department. The kit is obtained by contacting the Responsible Safety Officer. Safety shields must be used for protection against possible explosions or splash hazards. Company equipment must be shielded on all sides so that there is no line-of-sight exposure of personnel. The sash on a chemical fume hood is a readily available partial shield. However, a portable shield must also be used, particularly with hoods that have vertical-rising sashes rather than horizontal-sliding sashes.
All containers (including glassware, safety cans, plastic squeeze bottles) must have labels that identify their chemical contents. Labels should also contain information on the hazards associated with the use of the chemical. Precautionary labels are available from Your ABCs stock room for most of the common chemicals.
The separation of chemicals (solids or liquids) during storage is necessary to reduce the possibility of unwanted chemical reactions caused by accidental mixing. Explosives such as picric acid should be stored separately outdoors. Use either distance or barriers (e.g., trays) to isolate chemicals into the following groups: Flammable liquids (e.g., acetone, benzene, ethers, alcohols). Place in approved fire lockers. Other liquids (e.g., chloroform, trichloroethane). Acids (e.g., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, perchloric). * Treat acetic acid as a flammable liquid. Bases (e.g., sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide). Lips, strips, or bars should be installed across the width of reagent shelves to restrain the chemicals in case of earthquake. Chemicals must not be stored in the same refrigerator used for food storage. Refrigerators used for storing chemicals must be appropriately identified by placing a label on the door (labels may be obtained from Responsible Safety Officer).
In case of an emergency, consider any of the following actions if appropriate: Evacuate people from the area. Isolate the area. If the material is flammable, turn off ignition and heat sources. Call the Fire Department or 911 for assistance. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment. Pour Sorb-all or appropriate neutralizing agent on spill. Clean up; place waste in plastic bag for disposal. Chemical spill cleanup materials are available from stores as listed below: Flammable solvent spill kit Flammable solvent absorbent Acid spill kit Acid spill absorbent Caustic (base) spill kit Caustic (base) absorbent Safety equipment kit (contains scoops, sponge, safety glasses, disposal bags, etc.) Cabinet to hold kits
All Your ABCs employees, participating guests, and visitors using hazardous chemicals are responsible for disposing of these chemicals safely. Federal and state regulations mandate strict disposal procedures for chemicals. To comply with these regulations all persons using Company facilities must observe these procedures. Routine Disposal of Chemicals In general the disposal of hazardous chemicals to the sanitary sewer is not permitted. The Responsible Safety Officer will advise on the proper disposal of chemical wastes. In using chemical waste storage containers, certain procedures must be observed, as listed below: Incompatible chemicals must not be mixed in the same container (e.g., acids should not be mixed with bases; organic liquids should not be mixed with strong oxidizing agents). Waste oils must be collected in 55-gallon drums. Disposal solids, and explosive materials must be stored in separate containers.
The following requirements must be met as a condition for pickup and disposal of chemicals by the Responsible Safety Officer:
§ Chemicals must be separated into compatible groups.
§ Leaking containers of any sort will not be accepted.
§ Dry materials (gloves, wipes, pipettes, etc.) must be securely contained in plastic bags and over packed in a cardboard box.
§ Packages that are wet or have sharp protruding objects will not be accepted for pick up.
§ Unknown chemicals will require special handling.
The responsible department must make every effort to identify the material that is to be disposed. If all the user's attempts to identify the waste chemicals have failed, the Responsible Safety Officer will accept the waste and analyze the material. For more information call the Responsible Safety Officer. Each breakable container must be properly boxed. Place all bottles in plastic bags, then place in a sturdy container and use an absorbent cushioning material that is compatible with the chemicals. Each primary container must be labeled with content, amount, physical state, and the percentage breakdown of a mixture. Each box must have a complete list of contents or description written on an official Responsible Safety Officer hazardous materials packing list. Blank packing lists are available from the Responsible Safety Officer. For safety purposes, boxes must be of a size and weight so that one person can handle them. Boxes that exceed 45 pounds or 18 inches on a side cannot be safely handled by one person and will not be acceptable for pick up. General Housekeeping Rules: Maintain the smallest possible inventory of chemicals to meet your immediate needs. Periodically review your stock of chemicals on hand. Ensure that storage areas, or equipment containing large quantities of chemicals, are secure from accidental spills. Rinse emptied bottles that contain acids or inflammable solvents before disposal. Recycle unused laboratory chemicals wherever possible.
Place hazardous chemicals in salvage or garbage receptacles. Pour chemicals onto the ground. Dispose of chemicals through the storm drain system. Dispose of highly toxic, malodorous, or lachrymatory chemicals down sinks or sewer drains.
Beryllium is used predominantly in three forms: beryllium metal, beryllium oxide, and beryllium-copper alloys. Beryllium-copper alloys may consist of 0.5 to 4% beryllium, although the most common alloy has about 2% beryllium. Beryllium may also be alloyed with other metals, such as nickel and cobalt, or be found as a salt, e.g., beryllium fluoride, chloride, nitrate, or sulfate, and as beryllium hydroxide. Exposure to beryllium and its compounds can damage the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. The soluble beryllium salts, especially the fluoride and sulfate, are skin sensitizers and in high concentrations are also primary skin irritants. If beryllium gets into broken skin, the cut may abscess and not heal properly until the substance is removed. Eye irritations are also common, and splash-burns can cause damage to the cornea. Breathing dust and fumes, however, is the most common cause of beryllium poisoning. The effects of inhaling high levels of beryllium can range from mild inflammation of the nose and throat, a condition that resembles a cold, to a severe pneumonia-like reaction characterized by coughing, difficulty in breathing, pain and tightness in the chest, loss of appetite, and general fatigue. The effects of inhaling low levels of beryllium over an extended period of time may be delayed from a few months to years after the last exposure.
Chronic beryllium poisoning in most cases affects the respiratory tract. The onset may be manifested by weakness, loss of weight, shortness of breath, and coughing. Beryllium dusts or powders constitute a moderate fire hazard. However, any fire involving beryllium is a serious threat to the health of nearby personnel. Avoid skin contact with beryllium salts or salt solutions, and do not allow metallic beryllium to come in contact with open wounds or abrasions. Wear gloves when handling beryllium or beryllium compounds when loose contamination (dust or chips) is present. There is no danger in ordinary skin contact with beryllium metal, alloys, or fused-ceramic material.
All operations involving the generation of airborne beryllium must be done under controlled conditions for which concurrence must be obtained from the Responsible Safety Officer. Operations such as machining, grinding, welding, cutting, drilling, sawing, and milling must be enclosed and the exhaust ventilated through high-efficiency filters. A hazardous concentration of beryllium fumes may be generated when the metal is heated above 650C (1200F), or when the oxide is heated above 1540C (2800F). Scrupulous adherence to good housekeeping practices and plant and personal cleanliness is an obvious necessity. All beryllium parts must be stored and transported in labeled containers. One of the following labels may be used. "Beryllium (Beryllium oxides)" "Contains Beryllium" All beryllium and beryllium-contaminated waste must be placed in properly marked containers and picked up by the Decontamination and Waste Disposal Section. The following work on beryllium-copper alloys may be performed without special controls: lathe cutting using a coolant, shearing, forming, hand sawing, hand filing, hand sanding, and soft soldering in a hood.
The greatest exposure potential is probably from welding or burning cadmium-plated parts and brazing or silver soldering with cadmium-containing rods and wires. These brazing alloys contain 15 to 19% cadmium. Finely divided cadmium metal and cadmium oxide fumes are highly toxic and must not be inhaled or ingested. A single exposure to high levels of cadmium in the air can cause severe lung irritation, which may be fatal. Symptoms usually appear 4 to 10 hours after exposure when cough, labored breathing, and commonly a feeling of constriction or a burning sensation in the chest develop. Generalized flu-like symptoms characterized by shaky chills, sweating, aching in the extremities and back, headache, and dizziness may also develop. Continued exposure to low levels of cadmium in the air can result in chronic poisoning characterized by irreversible lung injury and kidney damage.
Cadmium is suspected of causing cancer in humans. Symptoms of the cumulative effects of cadmium may appear after exposure has terminated. Cadmium metal dust will burn with the evolution of a very hazardous brownish-yellow fume. Remove all cadmium from plated parts before welding or burning. Substitute cadmium-free silver solder whenever possible. When cadmium is melted, temperatures should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the requirement of the operation, to prevent excessive fume generation. Indoor work or continuous outdoor work that involves the generation of airborne cadmium must be enclosed to the maximum extent practical and be provided with a good exhaust system that collects and removes the fumes as they are formed. If the work is outdoor and intermittent, a properly fitted fume respirator must be used. In confined spaces where an exhaust system is not practical, a supplied-air respirator must be worn. Evaluation of exhaust systems and work situations and supply of respiratory protective equipment are available from the Responsible Safety Officer. Cadmium-containing and cadmium-plated parts should be kept separate from parts not containing cadmium and marked appropriately so that accidental exposures resulting from cutting and welding will not occur. When there is cadmium dust, cleaning must be performed by vacuum pickup or wet mopping. No dry sweeping or blowing is permitted.
A confined space is defined as any structure that must be entered and that has or may contain dangerous concentrations of hazardous gases or vapors or an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Entry to these spaces must be rigorously controlled to prevent serious injury or death.
Hazardous conditions include, but are not limited, to the following: An atmosphere containing less than 19.5% oxygen (normal air contains 20.9% oxygen). This is usually the result of oxygen displacement by inert gases such as nitrogen, argon, helium, or sulfur hexafluoride. Flammable gases and vapors (e.g., methane, ethane, propane, gasoline, methyl-ethyl ketone, alcohol). Toxic gases and vapors (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, 1,1,1 trichloroethane, perchloroethane, methylene chloride).
The primary objective is to prevent oxygen deficiency or other hazardous condition. This must be accomplished by accepted engineering control measures, such as general and local ventilation and substitution of materials. Only when such controls are not possible should respiratory protection be used. Written operating procedures governing the identification, testing, and entry into a confined space with a potential for oxygen deficiency must be established by the operating personnel and approved by the Responsible Safety Officer. Monitoring devices, audible alarms, warning lights, and instructional signs should be installed where there is a potentially oxygen-deficient atmosphere. These installations must be approved by the Responsible Safety Officer.
Before entering a confined space, the steps below must be followed:
§ An entry permit must be issued to the worker by the responsible supervisor and reviewed by the Responsible Safety Officer.
§ Air quality must be tested to determine the level of oxygen and toxic or flammable air contaminants.
§ Air purging and ventilation must be provided whenever possible.
§ The confined space must be isolated from supply lines capable of creating hazardous conditions.
§ Lock-out procedures must be used to secure electrical systems, pressure systems, piping, machinery, or moving equipment.
If a person must enter a confined space containing hazardous gases, the procedures below must be followed:
§ Protective equipment must be worn, including air supply respirator plus harness and lifeline.
§ At least one person must be stationed outside the confined space, with suitable respirator.
§ Communication with personnel in the confined space must always be maintained.
It is the policy of Your ABCs to take every reasonable precaution in the performance of work to protect the health and safety of employees and the public and to minimize the probability of damage to property. The electrical safety requirements contained in this chapter are regulations set forth by Your ABCs.
All Your ABCs personnel are responsible for all aspects of safety within their own groups. The Responsible Safety Officer is responsible for providing information, instruction, and assistance, as appropriate, concerning Your ABCs electrical safety requirements and procedures. Individual employees are responsible for their own and their co-workers' safety. This means: Become acquainted with all potential hazards in the area in which they work. Learn and follow the appropriate standards, procedures, and hazard-control methods. Never undertake a potentially hazardous operation without consulting with appropriate supervision. Stop any operation you believe to be hazardous. Notify a supervisor of any condition or behavior that poses a potential hazard. Wear and use appropriate protective equipment. Immediately report any occupational injury or illness to the Responsible Safety Officer, any on site Medical Services Department and the appropriate supervisor.
Each employee acting in a supervisory capacity has specific safety responsibilities. These include: Developing an attitude and awareness of safety in the people supervised and seeing that individual safety responsibilities are fully carried out. Maintaining a safe work environment and taking corrective action on any potentially hazardous operation or condition. Ensuring that the personnel he/she directs are knowledgeable and trained in the tasks they are asked to perform. Ensuring that safe conditions prevail in the area and that everyone is properly informed of the area's safety regulations and procedures. Ensuring that contract personnel are properly protected by means of instructions, signs, barriers, or other appropriate resources. Ensuring that no employee assigned to potentially hazardous work appears to be fatigued, ill, emotionally disturbed, or under the influence of alcohol or drugs (prescription, over the county medicinal or otherwise). Management at every level has the responsibility for maintaining the work environment at a minimal level of risk throughout all areas of control.
§ Is responsible for being aware of all potentially hazardous activities within the area of responsibility.
§ May assign responsibility or delegate authority for performance of any function, but
§ Remains accountable to higher management for any oversight or error that leads to injury, illness, or damage to property.
It is the policy of Your ABCs to follow the fundamental principles of safety, which are described below. A clear understanding of these principles will improve the safety of working with or around electrical equipment. Practice proper housekeeping and cleanliness. Poor housekeeping is a major factor in many accidents. A cluttered area is likely to be both unsafe and inefficient. Every employee is responsible for keeping a clean area and every supervisor is responsible for ensuring that his or her areas of responsibility remain clean. Identify hazards and anticipate problems. Think through what might go wrong and what the consequences would be. Do not hesitate to discuss any situation or question with your supervisor and coworkers. Resist hurry-up pressure. Program pressures should not cause you to bypass thoughtful consideration and planned procedures.
Consider safety to be an integral part of the design process. Protective devices, warning signs, and administrative procedures are supplements to good design but can never fully compensate for its absence. Completed designs should include provisions for safe maintenance.
Good maintenance is essential to safe operations. Maintenance procedures and schedules for servicing and maintaining equipment and facilities, including documentation of repairs, removals, replacements, and disposals, should be established. Document your work. An up-to-date set of documentation adequate for operation, maintenance, testing, and safety should be available to anyone working on potentially hazardous equipment. Keep drawings and prints up to date. Dispose of obsolete drawings and be certain that active file drawings have the latest corrections. Have designs reviewed. All systems and modifications to systems performing a safety function or controlling a potentially hazardous operation must be reviewed and approved at the level of project engineer or above. Have designs and operation verified. All systems performing safety functions or controlling a potentially hazardous operation must be periodically validated by actual test procedures at least once a year, and both the procedures and actual tests must be documented. Test equipment safety. Tests should be made when the electrical equipment is de-energized, or, at most, energized with reduced hazard. Know emergency procedures. All persons working in areas of high hazard (with high-voltage power supplies, capacitor banks, etc.) must be trained in emergency response procedures, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification.
This section contains safety requirements that must be met in constructing electrical equipment and in working on energized electrical equipment. Special emphasis is placed on problems associated with personnel working on hazardous electrical equipment in an energized condition. Such work is permissible, but only after extensive effort to perform the necessary tasks with the equipment in a securely de-energized condition has proven unsuccessful, or if the equipment is so enclosed and protected that contact with hazardous voltages is essentially impossible.
Definitions: The following definitions are used in this discussion of electrical safety.
Authorized Person: An individual recognized by management as having the responsibility for and expertise to perform electrical procedures in the course of normal duties. Such individuals are normally members of electronic or electrical groups.
Backup Protection: A secondary, redundant, protective system provided to de-energize a device, system, or facility to permit safe physical contact by assigned personnel. A backup protective system must be totally independent of the first-line protection and must be capable of functioning in the event of total failure of the first-line protective system.
Companion: A co-worker who is cognizant of potential danger and occasionally checks the other worker.
Electrical Hazard: A potential source of personnel injury involving, either directly or indirectly, the use of electricity.
Direct Electrical Hazard: A potential source of personnel injury resulting from the flow of electrical energy through a person (electrical shocks and burns).
Indirect Electrical Hazard: A potential source of personnel injury resulting from electrical energy that is transformed into other forms of energy (e.g., radiant energy, such as light, heat, or energetic particles; magnetic fields; chemical reactions, such as fire, explosions, the production of noxious gases and compounds; and involuntary muscular reactions).
First Line Protection: The primary protective system and/or operational procedure provided to prevent physical contact with energized equipment.
General Supervision: The condition that exists when an individual works under a supervisor's direction but not necessarily in the continuous presence of the supervisor.
Grounding Point: The most direct connection to the source of a potential electrical hazard such as the terminals of a capacitor. Such a point must be indicated by a yellow circular marker.
Grounds, Electrical: Any designated point with adequate capacity to carry any potential currents to earth. Designated points may be building columns or specially designed ground-network cabling, rack, or chassis ground. Cold water pipes, wire ways, and conduits must not be considered electrical grounds.
Grounds, Massive: Large areas of metal, concrete, or wet ground that make electrical isolation difficult or impossible. Implied Approval: Approval is implied when a supervisor, knowing the qualifications of an individual, assigns that individual a task, or responsibility for, a device, system, or project.
Qualified Person: An individual recognized by management as having sufficient understanding of a device, system, or facility to be able to positively control any hazards it may present. Must, Should, and May: Must indicates a mandatory requirement. Should indicates a recommended action. May indicates an optional or permissive action, not a requirement or recommendation.
Safety Watch: An individual whose sole task is to observe the operator and to quickly de-energize the equipment, using a crash button or circuit breaker control in case of an emergency, and to alert emergency personnel. This person should have basic CPR training.
The degree of hazard associated with electrical shock is a function of the duration, magnitude, and frequency of the current passed by the portion of the body incorporated in the circuit. The current that can flow through the human body with contacts at the extremities, such as between the hand or head and one or both feet, depends largely on the voltage. Body circuit resistance, even with liquid contacts (barring broken skin) will probably be not less than 500 ohms. The current flow at this resistance at 120 volts is 240 milliamperes. Recognition of the hazards associated with various types of electrical equipment is of paramount importance in developing and applying safety guidelines for working on energized equipment. Three classes (in order of increasing severity) of electrical hazards have evolved.
Class A electrical hazard exists when all the following conditions prevail: The primary AC potential does not exceed 130 volts rms. The available primary AC current is limited to 30 amperes rms. The stored energy available in a capacitor or inductor is less than 5 joules (J=CV2/2=LI2/2). The DC or secondary AC potentials are less than 50 volts line-to-line and/or to ground or the DC or secondary AC power is 150 volt-amperes (V-A) or less. Although the voltages and currents may be considered nominal, a "Class A" electrical hazard is potentially lethal. This class is particularly dangerous because of everyday familiarity with such sources, an assumed ability to cope with them, and their common occurrence in less guarded exposures.
A Class B electrical hazard has the same conditions as a Class A hazard except that the primary AC potential is greater than 130 volts rms, but does not exceed 300 volts rms.
Class C electrical hazard classifications prevail for all situations when one or more of the limitations set in Class B is exceeded.
The attitudes and habits of personnel and the precautions they routinely take when working on energized equipment are extremely important. There are three modes of working on electrical equipment.
All operations are to be conducted with the equipment in a positively de-energized state. All external sources of electrical energy must be disconnected by some positive action (e.g., locked-out breaker) and with all internal energy sources rendered safe. "Mode 1" is a minimum hazard situation.
All manipulative operations (such as making connections or alterations to or near normally energized components) are to be conducted with the equipment in the positively de-energized state. Measurements and observations of equipment functions may then be conducted with the equipment energized and with normal protective barriers removed. "Mode 2" is a moderate-to-severe hazard situation, depending on the operating voltages and energy capabilities of the equipment.
Mode 3 exists when manipulative, measurement, and observational operations are to be conducted with the equipment fully energized and with the normal protective barriers removed. Mode 3 is a severe hazard situation that should be permitted only when fully justified and should be conducted under the closest supervision and control. One knowledgeable person should be involved in addition to the worker(s). Written permission may be required. Work on Class B or Class C energized circuitry must only be done when it is absolutely necessary.
Either safety glasses or a face shield must be worn when working on electrical equipment.
For work on any energized circuitry with a Class B or Class C hazard, the use of personal protective devices (e.g., face shields, blast jackets, gloves, and insulated floor mats) is encouraged, even if not required.
Any person working on electrical equipment on a crane or other elevated location must take necessary precautions to prevent a fall from reaction to electrical shock or other causes. A second person, knowledgeable as a safety watch, must assume the best possible position to assist the worker in case of an accident.
The supervisory chain must be identified for normal operation and development, servicing, or testing of hazardous equipment. An up-to-date set of instructions for operation, maintenance, testing, and safety should be provided and made readily available to anyone working on hazardous equipment. As many tests as practicable should be made on any type of electrical equipment in the un-energized condition, or at most, energized with reduced hazard. All covering, clothing, and jewelry that might cause hazardous involvement must be removed. Adequate and workable lock-out/tag-out procedures must be employed. A person in a hazardous position who appears to be fatigued, ill, emotionally disturbed, or under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs (medicinal, or otherwise) must be replaced by a competent backup person, or the hazardous work must be terminated. Supervisors and workers must be encouraged to make the conservative choice when they are in doubt about a situation regarding safety. Training sessions and drills must be conducted periodically to help prevent accidents and to train personnel to cope with any accidents that may occur. CPR instruction must be included. An emergency-OFF switch, clearly identified and within easy reach of all high-hazard equipment, should be provided. Also, this switch may be used to initiate a call for help. Resetting an Emergency-OFF switch must not be automatic but must require an easily understandable overt act. Automatic safety interlocks must be provided for all access to high-hazard equipment. Any bypass of such an interlock should have an automatic reset, display conspicuously the condition of the interlocks, and ensure that barriers cannot be closed without enabling the interlock. All equipment should have convenient, comfortable, and dry access. Communication equipment (e.g., fire alarm box, telephone) should be provided near any hazardous equipment. Its location should be clearly marked to ensure that the person requesting assistance can direct the people responding to a call for help to the emergency site quickly. Any component that in its common use is non-hazardous, but in its actual use may be hazardous, must be distinctively colored and/or labeled. (An example might be a copper pipe carrying high voltage or high current.) Periodic tests of interlocks to ensure operability must be performed and documented at least yearly.
Equipment must be designed and constructed to provide personnel protection. First-line and backup safeguards should be provided to prevent personnel access to energized circuits. Periodic tests must be established to verify that these protective systems are operative.
Additional safety practices are described below.
Cable Clamping: A suitable mechanical-strain-relief device such as a cord grip, cable clamp, or plug must be used for any wire or cable penetrating an enclosure where external movement or force can exert stress on the internal connection. Grommets, adlets, or similar devices must not be used as strain relief.
Emergency Lighting: There must be an emergency lighting system that activates when normal power fails in Class C conditions.
Flammable & Toxic Material Control: The use of flammable or toxic material must be kept to a minimum. When components with such fluids are used, a catch basin or other approved method must be provided to prevent the spread of these materials should the normal component case fail.
Isolation: All sources of dangerous voltage and current must be isolated by covers and enclosures. Access to lethal circuits must be either via screw-on panels, each containing no less than four screws or bolts, or by interlocked doors. The frame or chassis of the enclosure must be connected to a good electrical ground with a conductor capable of handling any potential fault current.
Lighting: Adequate lighting must be provided for easy visual inspection. Overload Protection: Overload protection and well marked disconnects must be provided. Local Off controls must be provided on remote-controlled equipment. All disconnects and breakers should be clearly labeled as to which loads they control.
Power: All ac and dc power cabling to equipment not having a separate external ground but having wire-to-wire or wire-to-ground voltage of 50 volts or more must carry a ground conductor unless cabling is inside an interlocked enclosure, rack, grounded wire way, or conduit, or feeds a commercial double-insulated or UL-approved device. This requirement will ensure that loads such as portable test equipment, temporary or experimental, is grounded. UL-approved devices such as coffeepots, timers, etc., used per the manufacturer's original intent are permissible. Rating: All conductors, switches, resistors, etc., should be operated within their design capabilities. Pulsed equipment must not exceed either the average, the RMS, or the peak rating of components. The equipment should be derated as necessary for the environment and the application of the components.
Safety Grounding: Automatic discharge devices must be used on equipment with stored energy of 5 joules or more. Suitable and visible manual grounding devices must also be provided to short-to-ground all dangerous equipment while work is being performed.
The following check list must be used as a guide for circuits operating at 130 volts or more or storing more than 5 joules. An enclosure may be a room, a barricaded area, or an equipment cabinet.
Access: Easily opened doors, panels, etc., must be interlocked so that the act of opening de-energizes the circuit. Automatic discharge of stored-energy devices must be provided. Doors should be key-locked, with the same required key being also used for the locks in the control-circuit-interlock chain. This key must be removable from the door only when the door is closed and locked.
Heat: Heat-generating components, such as resistors, must be mounted so that heat is safely dissipated and does not affect adjacent components.
Isolation: The enclosure must physically prevent contact with live circuits. The enclosure can be constructed of conductive or non-conductive material. If conductive, the material must be electrically interconnected and connected to a good electrical ground. These connections must be adequate to carry all potential fault currents.
Seismic Safety: All racks, cabinets, chassis, and auxiliary equipment must be secured against movement during earthquakes.
Strength: Enclosures must be strong enough to contain flying debris due to component failure.
Temporary Enclosure: Temporary enclosures (less than 6-month duration) not conforming to the normal requirements must be considered Class C hazards.
Ventilation: Ventilation must be adequate to prevent overheating of equipment and to purge toxic fumes produced by a fault.
Visibility: Enclosures large enough to be occupied by personnel must allow exterior observation of equipment and personnel working inside the enclosure.
Warning Indicators: When systems other than conventional facilities represent Class C hazards, the systems should be provided with one of the following two safety measures:
(1) A conspicuous visual indicator that is clearly visible from any point where a person might make hazardous contact or entry; and
(2) A clearly visible primary circuit breaker or OFF control button on the front of the enclosure.
Because a wide range of power supplies exist, no one set of considerations can be applied to all cases. The following classification scheme may be helpful in assessing power-supply hazards. Power supplies of 50 volts or less with high current capability too often are not considered a shock hazard, although these voltages are capable of producing fatal shocks. Since they are not high voltage, such power sources frequently are not treated with proper respect.
In addition to the obvious shock and burn hazards, there is also the likelihood of injuries incurred in trying to get away from the source of a shock. Cuts or bruises, and even serious and sometimes fatal falls, have resulted from otherwise insignificant shocks. Power supplies of 300 volts or more, with lethal current capability, have the same hazards to an even greater degree. Because supplies in this category are considered Class C hazards, they must be treated accordingly. High-voltage supplies that do not have dangerous current capabilities are not serious shock or burn hazards in themselves and are therefore often treated in a casual manner. However, they are frequently used adjacent to lower-voltage lethal circuits, and a minor shock could cause a rebound into such a circuit. Also, an involuntary reaction to a minor shock could cause a serious fall (for example, from a ladder or from experimental apparatus).
The following are additional safety considerations for power supplies.
Primary Disconnect. A means of positively disconnecting the input must be provided. This disconnect must be clearly marked and located where the workmen can easily lock or tag it out while servicing the power supply. If provided with a lockout device, the key must not be removable unless the switch or breaker is in the Off position.
Overload Protection. Overload protection must be provided on the input and should be provided on the output.
This section describes the hazards associated with capacitors capable of storing more than 5 joules of energy. Capacitors may store hazardous energy even after the equipment has been de-energized and may build up a dangerous residual charge without an external source; "grounding" capacitors in series, for example, may transfer rather than discharge the stored energy. Another capacitor hazard exists when a capacitor is subjected to high currents that may cause heating and explosion. At one time, capacitors were called condensers and older capacitors may still bear this label in diagrams and notices. Capacitors may be used to store large amounts of energy. An internal failure of one capacitor in a bank frequently results in explosion when all other capacitors in the bank discharge into the fault. Approximately 10 sup 4 joules is the threshold energy for explosive failure of metal cans. Because high-voltage cables have capacitance and thus can store energy, they should be treated as capacitors.
The liquid dielectric in many capacitors, or its combustion products, may be toxic. Do not breath the fumes from the oil in older capacitors. The following are safety practices for capacitors:
Automatic Discharge. Permanently connected bleeder resistors should be used when practical. Capacitors in series should have separate bleeders. Automatic shorting devices that operate when the equipment is de-energized or the enclosure is opened should be used. The time required for a capacitor to discharge to safe voltage (50 volts or less) must not be greater than the time needed for personnel to gain access to the voltage terminals never longer than 5 minutes. In the case of Class C equipment with stored energy in excess of 5 joules, an automatic, mechanical discharging device must be provided that functions when normal access ports are opened. This device must be contained locally within protective barrier to ensure wiring integrity and should be in plain view of the person entering the protective barrier so that the individual can verify its proper functioning. Protection also must be provided against the hazard of the discharge itself.
Safety Grounding. Fully visible, manual-grounding devices must be provided to render the capacitors safe while they are being worked on. Grounding points must be clearly marked, and caution must be used to prevent transferring charges to other capacitors.
Ground Hooks. All ground hooks must: Have conductors crimped and soldered. Be connected such that impedance is less than 0.1 ohms to ground. Have the cable conductor clearly visible through its insulation. Have a cable conductor size of at least #2 extra flexible, or in special conditions a conductor capable of carrying any potential current. Be in sufficient number to ground conveniently and adequately ALL designated points. Be grounded and located at normal entry way when stored, in such a manner to ensure that they are used. In Class C equipment with stored energy in excess of 5 joules, a discharge point with an impedance capable of limiting the current to 500 amperes or less should be provided. This discharge point must be identified with a yellow circular marker with a red slash and must be labeled HI Z PT in large readable letters. A properly installed grounding hook must first be connected to the current-limiting discharge point and then to a low-impedance discharge point (less than 0.1 ohm) that is identified by a yellow circular marker. The grounding hooks must be left on all of these low impedance points during the time of safe access. The low-impedance points must be provided, whether or not the HI-Z current-limiting points are needed. Voltage indicators that are visible from all normal entry points should also be provided.
Fusing. Capacitors used in parallel should be individually fused when possible to prevent the stored energy from dumping into a faulted capacitor. Care must be taken in placement of automatic-discharge safety devices with respect to fuses. If the discharge will flow through the fuses, a prominent warning sign must be placed at each entry indicating that each capacitor must be manually grounded before work can begin. Special knowledge is required for high-voltage and high-energy fusing.
Unused Terminal Shorting. Terminals of all unused capacitors representing a Class C hazard or capable of storing 5 joules or more must be visibly shorted.
This section describes inductors and magnets that can store more than 5 joules of energy or that operate at 130 volts or more. The following are some hazards peculiar to inductors and magnets:
The ability of an inductor to release stored energy at a much higher voltage than that used to charge it. Stray magnetic fields that attract magnetic materials. Time-varying stray fields that induce eddy currents in conductive material thereby causing heating and mechanical stress. Time-varying magnetic fields that may induce unwanted voltages at inductor or magnet terminals.
The following are safety practices for inductive circuits:
Automatic Discharge. Freewheeling diodes, varistors, thyrites, or other automatic shorting devices must be used to provide a current path when excitation is interrupted.
Connections. Particular attention should be given to connections in the current path of inductive circuits. Poor connections may cause destructive arcing.
Cooling. Many inductors and magnets are liquid cooled. The unit should be protected by thermal interlocks on the outlet of each parallel coolant path, and a flow interlock should be included for each device.
Eddy Currents. Units with pulsed or varying fields should have a minimum of eddy-current circuits. If large eddy-current circuits are unavoidable, they should be mechanically secure and able to safely dissipate any heat produced.
Grounding. The frames and cores of magnets, transformers, and inductors should be grounded.
Rotating Electrical Machinery. Beware of the hazard due to residual voltages that exists until rotating electrical equipment comes to a full stop.
Proper philosophy is vital to the safe design of most control applications. The following check list should be used as a guide.
Checkout. Interlock chains must be checked for proper operation after installation, after any modification, and during periodic routine testing.
Fail-Safe design. All control circuits must be designed to be fail-safe. Starting with a breaker or fuse, the circuit should go through all the interlocks in series to momentary on-off switches that energize and "seal in" a control relay. Any open circuit or short circuit will de-energize the control circuit and must be reset by overt act.
Interlock Bypass Safeguards. A systematic procedure for temporarily bypassing interlocks must be established. Follow-up procedures should be included to ensure removal of the bypass as soon as possible. When many control-circuit points are available at one location, the bypassing should be made through the normally open contacts of relays provided for this purpose. In an emergency, these relays can be opened from a remote control area.
Isolation. Control power must be isolated from higher power circuits by transformers, contactors, or other means. Control power should be not more than 120 volts, ac, or dc. All circuits should use the same phase or polarity so that no additive voltages (Class B or Class C hazard) are present between control circuits or in any interconnect system. Control-circuit currents should not exceed 5 amperes.
Lock-out. A keyed switch should be used in interlock chains to provide positive control of circuit use. To ensure power removal before anyone enters the enclosure, this same key should also be used to gain access to the controlled equipment.
Motor Control Circuits (Class B or Class C Hazards). All Class B or Class C motor circuits must have a positive disconnect within view of the motor or, if this is not practical, a disconnect that can be locked open by the person working on these motor circuits is acceptable.
Over-Voltage Protection. Control and instrumentation circuits used with high-voltage equipment must have provision for shorting fault-induced high voltages to ground. High-voltage fuses with a high-current, low-voltage spark gap downstream from the high-voltage source are recommended. This also applies to all circuits penetrating high-voltage enclosures.
Voltage Divider Protection. The output of voltage dividers used with high voltages must be protected from over-voltage-to-ground within the high-voltage area by spark gaps, neon bulbs, or other appropriate means.
Current Monitors. Currents should be measured with a shunt that has one side grounded or with current transformers that must be either loaded or shorted at all times. Instrument Accuracy. Instrumentation should be checked for function and calibration on a routine basis.
This section covers radiation hazards that may be encountered in working with electrical equipment. The following information should be used as a rough guide to radiation safety. Hazardous electromagnetic radiation must be isolated in shielded enclosures. Transmission paths of microwave energy must be enclosed or barricaded and well-marked. Care must be taken to avoid reflecting energy out of this path. Suitable goggles must be worn where exposure is possible. Dose rates must not exceed those shown below.
Monitoring. When equipment capable of generating a radiation hazard is used, monitoring must be provided to detect and measure the radiation. Where personnel may be exposed, this monitoring equipment should be arranged to de-energize the generating equipment at a safe preset level. Isolation. Equipment that produces x-rays (high-voltage vacuum tubes operating at more than 15,000 volts) or any equipment that under fault conditions could produce x-rays (e.g., spectrometers) must be isolated from personnel. This isolation may be by distance or by lead shielding. For any questions, call the Responsible Safety Officer.
High-power sources of ultraviolet, infrared, and visible light must be isolated by barriers that are opaque to the radiation. When a beam of this radiation is projected out of an enclosure, the beam path must be barricaded and well marked. Care must be taken to eliminate reflective surfaces along the beam path. Suitable goggles must be worn where exposure is possible.
To work on systems with voltages greater than 300 volts (CLASS B OR C HAZARD):
Open the feeder breaker, roll out if possible, tag out, and lock if in enclosure. If work is on circuits of 600 V or more, positive grounding cables should be attached to all three phases. Tag should contain who, why, and when information, and it is of vital importance because a persons life may depend on it. Vital in this case means that the presence and status of the tag are inviolate, and the tag must not be altered or removed except by the person who attached it.
To work on systems with voltages less than 300 volts (CLASS A HAZARD): Turn-off and tag the feeder breaker. Tag is inviolate except on projects where established circuit checkout procedure allows a qualified person to remove it and energize circuit after checkout is complete.
For motor or generator work, primary feeder breaker must be opened, tagged, and locked out if possible. For generator-load work, motor-start permissive key must be removed by person doing work and restored when work is complete.
To work on high voltage power supplies and enclosures use Class B or Class C hazard procedure specified in the safety requirements. Access should always be by permissive key that interrupts input power when key is removed from control panel. Grounding of power supply output must occur either automatically when key is removed from control panel or manually before access door can be opened.
To work on high current power supplies (normally for magnets), treat system as a high voltage power supply, if energy storage is 5 joules or more when system is off. If not, then requirements for working on magnet are as follows: If power supply is equipped with Kirk (trademark) or equivalent interlock, turn the key and remove. This locks the input breaker in "off" position until key is reinserted and turned. If power supply is not equipped with a Kirk (trademark) or equivalent interlock, turn off and tag input circuit breaker.
The minimum requirements for working on any power supply is to turn the power off and properly tag feeder circuit breaker external to power supply.
When you have to perform maintenance work on a machine, take these four steps to protect yourself and your co-workers from injury:
11) De-energize the machine if possible. Positively disconnect the machine from the power source. If there is more than one source of power, then disconnect them all.
12) If possible, lock out all disconnect switches. You must be given a lock and a key for each disconnect before you begin working on the machine.
13) Tag all disconnect switches. Use the yellow or Red safety tags which state in large letters -- "Danger...Do Not Operate," or "Danger...Do Not Energize" and which give the name of the individual who locked out the equipment, date and time. The tag must also state "DO NOT REMOVE THIS TAG". (The person who placed the tag may remove it only after the machinery maintenance has been completed.)
14) Test the equipment to insure it is de-energized before working on it. First, attempt to operate the equipment by turning it on normally. Next, check all electrical lines and exposed areas with test equipment or a "lamp". Finally, short to ground any exposed connections using insulated grounding sticks. This test must be done even if the electrical connection is physically broken, such as pulling out a plug, because of the chance of discharging components.
A TAG OUT ONLY PROCEDURE MAY BE USED IF THE MACHINE CANNOT BE LOCKED OUT. IF THE MACHINE IS SUPPLIED ELECTRICAL POWER FROM A SINGLE SOURCE, WHICH IS UNDER THE EXCLUSIVE CONTROL OF A TRAINED AND QUALIFIED REPAIR PERSON AT ALL TIMES AND THERE ARE NOT ANY OTHER PERSONS IN THE REPAIR AREA WHO COULD BE HARMED BY THE ACCIDENTAL ENERGIZING OF THE MACHINERY, THEN TAG OUT MAY BE USED INSTEAD OF LOCK-OUT/TAG OUT.
Be aware that many accidents occur at the moment of re-energizing. If the machinery is to be re-energized, all persons must be kept at a safe distance away from the machinery. The re-energization can be performed only by a person who either performed the lock-out/tag out, a person acting under the immediate and direct commands of the original lock-out/tag out person, or in the event of a shift change, or other unavailability of the original person, then the original shall, before leaving, appoint a surrogate original person and show him or her all steps taken to lock-out/tag out the equipment.
Ladders & Scaffolds
Ladders must be in good condition, made of suitable material, of proper length, and of the correct type for the use intended. Damaged ladders must never be used; they should be repaired or destroyed. Ladders used near electrical equipment must be made of a non-conducting material. Stored ladders must be easily accessible for inspection and service, kept out of the weather and away from excessive heat, and well supported when stored horizontally. A portable ladder must not be used in a horizontal position as a platform or runway or by more than one person at a time. A portable ladder must not be placed in front of doors that open toward the ladder or on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases. Ladders must not be used as guys, braces, or skids. The height of a stepladder should be sufficient to reach the work station without using the top or next to the top steps. Bracing on the back legs of stepladders must not be used for climbing. The proper angle (75-1/2 degrees) for a portable straight ladder can be obtained by placing the base of the ladder a distance from the vertical wall equal to one quarter of the vertical distance from base to top of ladder's resting point. Ladders must be ascended or descended facing the ladder with both hands free to grasp the ladder. Tools must be carried in a tool belt or raised with a hand line attached to the top of the ladder. Extension ladders should be tied in place to prevent side slip.
All scaffolds, whether fabricated on site, purchased, or rented must conform with the specifications found in ANSI A10.8, Safety Requirements for Scaffolding. Rolling scaffolds must maintain a 3:1 height to base ratio (use smaller dimension of base). The footing or anchorage for a scaffold must be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. Unstable objects such as barrels, boxes, loose brick, or concrete blocks must not be used to support scaffolds or planks. No scaffold may be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered unless supervised by competent persons. Scaffolds and their components must be capable of supporting at least four times the maximum intended load without failure. Guard rails and toe boards must be installed on all open sides and ends of scaffolds and platforms more than 10 ft above the ground or floor. Scaffolds 4 feet to 10 feet in height having a minimum horizontal dimension in either direction of less than 45 inches must have standard installed on all open sides and ends of the platform. Wire, synthetic, or fiber rope used for suspended scaffolds must be capable of supporting at least 6 times the rated load. No riveting, welding, burning, or open flame work may be performed on any staging suspended by means of fiber or synthetic rope. Treated fiber or approved synthetic ropes must be used for or near any work involving the use of corrosive substances. All scaffolds, bosuns chairs, and other work access platforms must conform with the requirements set forth in the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Regulations for Construction, 29 CFR 1926.451, except where the specifications in ANSI A10.8 are more rigorous.
Workroom floors must be in a clean and, as much as possible, dry condition. Drainage mats, platforms, or false floors should be used where wet processes are performed. Floors must be free from protruding nails, splinters, holes, and loose boards or tiles. Permanent aisles or passageways must be marked. Floor holes must be protected by covers that leave no openings more than one inch wide. Floor openings into which persons can accidentally walk must be guarded by standard railings and toe boards. Open-sided floors, platforms, and runways higher than four feet must be guarded by standard railings. Toe boards must be used wherever people can pass below or hazardous equipment or materials are below.
When workers are required to work from surfaces that are in excess of 7-1/2 ft above an adjacent safe work place and are unprotected by railings, the following procedures and guidelines must be applied: Before selecting personnel for work at elevated work stations, supervisors must consider the workers' physical condition, such as medical problems, fear of heights, and coordination. The Medical Services Department should be contacted for information in this regard. Approved fall-arrester systems are required for all work at heights of 10 or more feet. A recommended fall-arrester system consists of a full body-harness, a lanyard consisting of 1/2inch nylon rope or equivalent with a breaking strength of 5400 lb and a maximum length to provide for a fall no greater than 6 feet, Sala-type fall-arrester block (optional), and an anchored hook-up location Alternate equipment must be approved by the Responsible Safety Officer. Fall-arrester systems are recommended for light work at heights between 7-1/2 and 10 feet. Fall-arrester systems are not required when work is being done while standing on a ladder. Ladders should be tied off. Use of a controlled descent device is not necessary unless it is impossible to reach a stranded person by another means. The Responsible Safety Officer will advise, on request, regarding usage and procedures. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to plan the intended work sufficiently to ensure that job planning and proper precautions have been taken. The Responsible Safety Officer is available for consultation.
Work may be performed from a crane-suspended platform where another procedure is not possible because of structure design or work site conditions. Personnel platforms must be designed by a qualified engineer and reviewed by the Responsible Safety Officer. The suspension system must minimize tipping. The platform must be designed with a minimum safety factor of 5 based on the ultimate strength of the members, and the design must conform to 29 CFR 1926.550(g).
Your ABCs requires that safety planning and practices for commonplace tasks be as thorough as for operations with unusual hazards. Commonplace tasks make up the greater part of the daily activities of most employees and, not unexpectedly, offer more potential sources of accidents with injuries and property damage. Every operation or work assignment begins and ends with handling of materials. Whether the material is a sheet of paper (paper cuts are painful) or a cylinder of toxic gas, accident risks can be reduced with thorough planning. Identifying obvious and hidden hazards should be the first step in planning work methods and job practices. Thorough planning should include all the steps associated with good management from job conception through crew and equipment decommissioning. Most of the material presented in this chapter is related to the commonplace and obvious. Nevertheless, a majority of the incidents leading to injury, occupational illness, and property damage stem from failure to observe the principles associated with safe materials handling and storage. A less obvious hazard is potential failure of used or excessive motorized handling or lifting equipment. The Responsible Safety Officer must be notified whenever it is desired to acquire a crane, forklift, truck, or other motorized handling or lifting equipment from outside sources.
Lifting and moving of objects must be done by mechanical devices rather than by manual effort whenever this is practical. The equipment used must be appropriate for the lifting or moving task. Lifting and moving devices must be operated only by personnel trained and authorized to operate them. Employees must not be required to lift heavy or bulky objects that overtax their physical condition or capability.
Planning for safe rigging and lifting must begin at the design stage, and lifting procedures must be developed for assembly and installation. The lifting procedure should be developed and discussed with the rigging crew fore person. Responsibility for all rigging jobs is shared between the rigging crew and the customer. The customer is responsible for defining and requesting the move, for providing technical information on relevant characteristics of the apparatus, including special lifting fixtures when required, for providing suggestions on rigging and moving, and for assigning someone to represent them both in planning and while the job is being carried out. The riggers are responsible for final rigging and for carrying out whatever moves have been designated.
Before any movement takes place, however, each representative must approve the rigging and other procedures associated with the intended move. Each must respect the responsibility and authority of the other to prevent or terminate any action he or she judges to be unsafe or otherwise improper. The supervisor must make certain that personnel know how to move objects safely by hand or with mechanical devices in the operations normal to the area and must permit only those employees who are formally qualified by training and certification to operate a fork truck, crane, or hoist. The supervisor must enforce the use of safe lifting techniques and maintain lifting equipment in good mechanical condition. Employees are required to observe all established safety regulations relating to safe lifting techniques. The Responsible Safety Officer provides training programs followed by certification for employees who have demonstrated the ability to operate fork trucks of up to 4-ton capacity and for incidental crane operations that require no special rigging.
Manual lifting and handling of material must be done by methods that ensure the safety of both the employee and the material. It is Your ABCs policy that employees whose work assignments require heavy lifting be properly trained and physically qualified, by medical examination if deemed necessary. The following are rules for manual lifting: Inspect the load to be lifted for sharp edges, slivers, and wet or greasy spots. Wear gloves when lifting or handling objects with sharp or splintered edges. These gloves must be free of oil, grease, or other agents that may cause a poor grip. Inspect the route over which the load is to be carried. It should be in plain view and free of obstructions or spillage that could cause tripping or slipping. Consider the distance the load is to be carried. Recognize the fact your gripping power may weaken over long distances. Size up the load and make a preliminary heft to be sure the load is easily within your lifting capacity. If it is not, get help. If team lifting is required, personnel should be similar in size and physique. One person should act as leader and give the commands to lift, lower, etc. Two persons carrying a long piece of pipe or lumber should carry it on the same shoulder and walk in step. Shoulder pads should be used to prevent cutting shoulders and help reduce fatigue.
Make sure of good footing and set your feet about 10 to 15 inches apart. It may help to set one foot forward of the other. Assume a knee-bend or squatting position, keeping your back straight and upright. Get a firm grip and lift the object by straightening your knees - not your back. Carry the load close to your body (not on extended arms). To turn or change your position, shift your feet do not twist your back. The steps for setting an object on the ground are the same as above, but in reverse.
Mechanical devices must be used for lifting and moving objects that are too heavy or bulky for safe manual handling by employees. Employees who have not been trained must not operate power-driven mechanical devices to lift or move objects of any weight. Heavy objects that require special handling or rigging must be moved only by riggers or under the guidance of employees specifically trained and certified to move heavy objects.
Each mechanical lifting or moving device must be inspected periodically. Each lifting device must also be inspected before lifting a load near its rated capacity. Defective equipment must be repaired before it is used. The rated load capacity of lifting equipment must not be exceeded. Material moving equipment must be driven forward going up a ramp and driven backward going down a ramp. Traffic must not be allowed to pass under a raised load. The floor-loading limit must be checked before mobile lifting equipment enters an area. Passengers must not be carried on lifting equipment unless it is specifically equipped to carry passengers.
Loads moved with any material handling equipment must not pass over any personnel. The load path must be selected and controlled to eliminate the possibility of injury to employees should the material handling equipment fail. Equipment worked on while supported by material handling equipment must have a redundant supporting system capable of supporting all loads that could be imposed by failure of the mechanical handling equipment. A suspended load must never be left unattended but must be lowered to the working surface and the material handling equipment secured before leaving the load unattended.
Material being shipped off site must be packed or crated by competent shipping personnel. Boxes, wooden crates, and other packing materials must be safely consigned to waste or salvage as soon as practicable following unpacking.
All objects loaded on trucks must be secured to the truck to prevent any shifting of the load in transit. The wheels of trucks being loaded or unloaded at a loading dock must be chocked to prevent movement.
All areas controlled by Your ABCs must be kept in orderly and clean condition and used only for activities or operations for which they have been approved. The following specific rules must also be followed: Keep stairs, corridors, and aisles clear. Traffic lanes and loading areas must be kept clear and marked appropriately. Store materials in work rooms or designated storage areas only. Do not use hallways, fan lofts, or boiler and equipment rooms as storage areas. Do not allow exits, passageways, or access to equipment to become obstructed by either stored materials or materials and equipment that is being used. Arrange stored materials safely to prevent tipping, falling, collapsing, rolling, or spreading - that is, any undesired and unsafe motion. Do not exceed the rated floor capacity of stored material for the area. The load limit and the maximum height to which material may be stacked must be posted. Place materials such as cartons, boxes, drums, lumber, pipe, and bar stock in racks or in stable piles as appropriate for the type of material.
Store materials that are radioactive, fissile, flammable, explosive, oxidizing, corrosive, or pyrophoric only under conditions approved for the specific use by the Responsible Safety Officer. Segregate and store incompatible materials in separate locations. Remove items that will not be required for extended periods from work areas and put them in warehouse storage. Call for assistance. Temporary equipment required for special projects or support activities must be installed so that it will not constitute a hazard. A minimum clearance of 36 inches must be maintained around electrical power panels. Wiring and cables must be installed in a safe and orderly manner, preferably in cable trays. Machinery and possible contact points with electrical power must have appropriate guarding.
The controls for temporary equipment must be located to prevent inadvertent actuation or awkward manipulation. When heat-producing equipment must be installed, avoid accidental ignition of combustible materials or touching of surfaces above 60 degrees C (140 F). Every work location must be provided with illumination that meets OSHA requirements. Evaluation of illumination quality and requirements is made by the Responsible Safety Officer, but the supervisor of an area is responsible for obtaining and maintaining suitable illumination. Areas without natural lighting and areas where hazardous operations are conducted must be provided with enough automatically activated emergency lighting to permit exit or entry of personnel if the primary lighting fails.
There are two types of heavy duty cranes at Your ABCs. Bridge cranes are classified as cab-operated or pendant-operated. Mobile cranes consist of a boom and controls mounted on a truck chassis. Bridge and mobile cranes must be operated only by trained operators designated by the supervisor in charge of the facility. The supervisor is also responsible for ensuring that operators are trained, carrying out the inspections and following the safe operating rules explained in the Operator/Rigger Training Program. The Operator/Rigger Training Program is administered by the Responsible Safety Officer. The training staff consists of a qualified crane consultant, professional riggers, and the Responsible Safety Officer. There are two levels of required training and performance: Professional Operator/Rigger: Person whose principal assignment includes crane operation and rigging functions. The chief operator/rigger must ensure that those professional operator/riggers under his/her supervision maintain the necessary qualifications. Incidental Operator/Rigger: Person who performs operating/rigging functions as an incidental part of his/her normal work assignment. Persons in this category are restricted to lower load limits and rigging of specific types of hardware. Incidental operator/riggers must be reexamined at least once every three years. Designated operator/riggers must have Government identification cards (Federal Form 46), endorsed appropriately. Before an employee may operate any of these cranes, the supervisor must arrange for the employee to receive incidental crane-operator training on the appropriate crane. Successful completion of the training must include an oral or written examination on the safety aspects of crane operation and a satisfactory demonstration of operational skills. The supervisor must determine that the applicant does not have any disqualifying medical or physical disabilities based on established requirements.
The crane must not be loaded beyond its rated load except for test purposes. Hoist chain or hoist rope must be free of kinks or twists and must not be wrapped around the load. Crane operators and floor persons must follow the OSHA requirements relating to moving the load.
The Engineering Department is responsible for establishing design parameters relating to general requirements, cabs, foot walks and ladders, stops, bumpers and rail sweeps, brakes, electric equipment, hoisting equipment, warning devices, and other appurtenances to cranes as required in Occupational Safety and Health Standards, 29 CFR 1910.179. In addition the Responsible Safety Officer shall establish design parameters for bridge cranes and to incorporate provisions for maintenance work stations (platforms, railings, ladders, tie-off points, etc.) that permit maintenance personnel to safely perform their operations. Cranes must have the load capacity marked on each side of the bridge or on the rail in the case of a monorail and jib crane. Mobile cranes must have the load capacity marked in a convenient location. The Responsible Safety Officer must review specifications developed by the Engineering Department.
All crane functional operating mechanisms for maladjustment interfering with proper operation and for excessive wear of components. On days used inspection is required by a crane operator. Deterioration or leakage in lines, tanks, valves, drain pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems. On days used inspection is required by a crane operator. Hooks. On days used visual inspection by a crane operator is required. Annual inspections must have signed reports by Your ABCs or an outside Engineer. Hooks with cracks or having deformation more than 15% in excess of normal throat opening or more than 10 degrees twist from the plane of the unbent hook must be discarded. Wire-rope slings, including end connections, for excessive wear, broken wires, stretch, kinking, or twisting. Visual inspection by crane operator on days used. The Responsible Safety Officer, the primary user or the Building Manager must ensure that an annual inspection with a signed report is made. Your ABCs or an outside Engineer must inspect rope reeving for non-compliance with manufacturer's recommendations before first use and annually thereafter.
According to OSHA requirements a crane that has been idle for a period of over six months must be inspected before being placed in service.
All crane hooks and lifting fixtures must be magnafluxed at least every four years. This will normally coincide with the certification load testing and inspection. The person in charge of a crane may request testing of hooks and/or lifting fixtures more frequently than every four years. The person in charge must give the Responsible Safety Officer a schedule of the desired frequency for testing the hook so that disassembly of the hook block can be included in their schedule for preventive maintenance of a particular crane.
Running ropes must be thoroughly inspected at least once a year during the structural inspection of the crane, and a full, written, dated, and signed report of rope conditions must be kept on file.
Routine maintenance, adjustments, and repairs must be performed by a qualified mechanic and reported to the Responsible Safety Officer according to each machine's established schedule and according to OSHA requirements.
The Responsible Safety Officer must be notified whenever it is desired to acquire a crane from excess sources.
Forklift users must familiarize themselves with and comply with OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.178 and ANSI B56.1. Modifications and additions must not be performed by the customer or user without manufacturer's prior authorization or qualified engineering analysis. Where such authorization is granted, capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals must be changed accordingly. If the forklift truck is equipped with front end attachments other than factory installed attachments, the user must ensure that the truck is marked with a card or plate that identifies the current attachments, shows the approximate weight of the truck with current attachments and shows the lifting capacity of the truck with current attachments at maximum lift elevation with load laterally centered. The user must see that all nameplates and caution and instruction markings are in place and legible. The user must consider that changes in load dimension may affect truck capacities.
Because forklift trucks may become hazardous if maintenance is neglected or incomplete, procedures for maintenance must comply with ANSI B56.1 Section 7 and OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1919.178 g.
Maximum efficiency, reliability, and safety require that the use of fork extensions be guided by principles of proper application, design, fabrication, use, inspection, and maintenance. The user must notify the Responsible Safety Officer before purchasing extensions or having them fabricated. Fork extensions are only appropriate for occasional use. When longer forks are needed on a regular basis, the truck should be equipped with standard forks of a longer length. Routine on-the-job inspections of the fork extension must be made by the fork lift operator before each use unless, in the judgment of the supervisor, less frequent inspections are reasonable because of his or her knowledge of its use since the last inspection. Extensions must be inspected for evidence of bending, overload, excess corrosion, cracks, and any other deterioration likely to affect their safe use.
All fork extensions must be proof load tested to establish or verify their rated capacities, whether they were supplied commercially or fabricated at Your ABCs. A load equal to the rated capacity of the pair at a particular load center multiplied by 1.15, must be placed on each fork extension pair and fork assembly and supported for a period of five minutes without any significant deformation. Rated capacity must be determined at significant load centers, including the midpoint of the extension and at the tip. Once determined, the rated capacity and load center information must be shown by stamping or tagging the extensions in a protected location of low stress. The proof load test must be witnessed by a mechanical engineer or designer. Whenever evidence of deterioration is detected or whenever the extensions have been overloaded, magnetic particle inspection must be performed.
Each operator is responsible for the safety and safety inspection of his or her lifting devices (such as screw pin shackles, hoist rings, commercial equipment, etc.) and for its lifting fixtures (such as spreader bars, special slings, Your ABCs-designed equipment, etc.). All lifting fixtures designed at Your ABCs must be proof tested to twice their maximum rated loads before they are placed in service. A magnetic particle inspection or other appropriate crack detection inspection is required after the proof test. The capacity must be marked on the lifting fixture so that it is clearly visible to the equipment operator. All lifting device pins of 2-inch diameter or larger must have a magnetic particle inspection before they are placed in service. All lifting fixtures must be inspected at least once every four years (or upon request), using magnetic particle detection or other appropriate methods. The Responsible Safety Officer must ensure that proof testing is performed on all lifting fixtures designed at Your ABCs before they are placed in service; that adequate test records are kept; and that the lifting devices and fixtures are used and maintained correctly. Upon request, the Responsible Safety Officer will provide a current test report to the user. For equipment designed at Your ABCs, the Responsible Safety Officer must provide the user with the information required to operate the lifting device or fixture safely.
The Responsible Safety Officer is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of lifting fixtures. The design stress for lifting fixtures must not exceed one-fifth (1/5) the ultimate strength of the material at the operating temperature. If welded fabrication is used, the design stress must take into consideration any weakening effects of welding, such as those that occur in aluminum alloys. If practical, avoid welding in the fabrication of lifting fixtures; however, if welding is used, design and fabrication must conform to the latest standards of the American Welding Society (AWS). Careful, thoughtful design and follow-up are required. The following rules apply when designing welded units: There must be no possibility of subjecting welds to tearing loads. Stresses in welds must be substantially uniform.
Where possible, design lifting fixtures so that the main loads are carried only by structural members, plates, or shear pins rather than by welds. Examine this possibility carefully. Welded fabrications must be proof tested to twice the maximum rated load followed by a magnetic particle inspection or other appropriate crack inspection method. Primary load carrying welds and welds in tension must be x-rayed. The screw-thread engagement required for conservative development of the full strength of a screw fastener depends upon the screw fastener material and the material of the threaded member. If the fastener is made of the same material as the female threaded member, e.g., a low-carbon steel bolt and a hole threaded into low-carbon steel, an engagement of at least 1-1/2 diameters is required. A hardened steel screw (Allen screw) in mild steel requires at least 2-diameters engagement. A low-carbon screw fastener, threaded into a tapped hole in aluminum alloy, copper, or cast iron must have a threaded engagement of 1-1/2 diameters. Other material combinations must be approved by the Responsible Safety Officer.
Safety hoist rings may be used to make lifts up to their rated load when screwed 2 hoist ring bolt diameters into materials such as aluminum alloy, copper, or cast iron. When special high strength bolts are required, consider the use of nonstandard pitch threads to avoid the possibility of using the wrong bolt in the lifting device. Any bolt used as part of Your ABCs-designed lifting fixtures or pickup devices must be tested to two (2) times its rated load. A crack detection inspection must be performed after the load test to ensure soundness. It is desirable to maintain a supply of tested bolts in the event that one is lost. Once a lifting device or fixture is in the hands of the user, it is the user's responsibility to ensure that the proper bolt is inserted to the proper depth and correctly torqued.
When equipment is designed to be crane lifted at a single point with a single-bolt pickup device, the vertical lifting load through the screw thread of the bolt must be in line with the axis of the bolt so that the load will remain level when it is lifted. With this bolt alignment the lift will be through the center of gravity and will be safer since the load will not tilt or kick out when it is lifted. A single-bolt pickup device, such as a Safety Hoist Ring or equivalent carefully designed and maintained in-house device, must be used. When a load is to be crane-lifted by slings from a crane hook through 2, 3, or 4 single-load pickup points located at the corners of the load, and without the use of a spreader bar, the forces at the lift points will be non-vertical. In this case a single bolt pickup device, such as a safety hoist ring or equivalent carefully designed and maintained in-house device, must be used at each pickup point. The use of eye bolts with shoulders is permitted for lifting light incidental loads after receiving approval from the crane certified operator or supervisor and when the following conditions are met: The load is in line with the axis of the eye bolt and side loads are minimal (a spreader bar may be required). The average stress at the root area of the thread does not exceed 5000 psi. The thread engagement is at least two bolt diameters.
Mechanical guarding must encompass both the power transmission parts of all mechanical equipment and the points of operation on production machines. Guards must be provided where rotational motion, nip points, and cutting, shearing, punching, and forming mechanisms can cause injury to personnel or damage to tools and equipment. Mechanical guards must be designed or otherwise procured to meet the following specifications: The guard must provide positive protection equal to that specified in ANSI B15.1. The guard must be considered a permanent part of the machine or equipment, capable of being easily or quickly removed or replaced. The guard must not interfere with efficient operation or maintenance of the machine or give discomfort to the operator. The guard must not weaken the machine structure. The guard must be designed for a specific job and a specific machine. The guard must be durable, resistant to fire and corrosion, and easily repaired. The guard must not present hazards, such as rough edges, splinters, pinch points, shear points, or sharp corners. Methods of guarding that must be considered include the following: Enclosing the operation (preferred) Interlocking devices Moving barriers Removal devices Remote control Two-handed tripping devices Electronic safety devices Machines designed for fixed locations must be securely anchored to the floor or bench to prevent walking or tipping. Employees may operate machinery only when properly trained and authorized to do so. Proper clothing and protective devices must be worn when specified by the supervisor or shop foreman.
When you have to do maintenance work on a machine, take these four steps to protect yourself and your co-workers from injury:
15) De-energize the machine if possible. Positively disconnect the machine from the power source. If there is more than one source of power, then disconnect them all.
16) If possible, lock out all disconnect switches. You must be given a lock and a key for each disconnect before you begin working on the machine.
17) Tag all disconnect switches. Use the yellow or Red safety tags which state in large letters Danger... Do No Operate, or Danger--Do Not Energize and gives the name of the individual who locked out the equipment, date and time. The tag must also state "DO NOT REMOVE THIS TAG" (except the person who placed the tag may remove it only after the machinery maintenance has been completed.
18) Test the equipment to insure it is de-energized before working on it. First, attempt to operate the equipment by turning on normally. Next check all electrical lines and exposed areas with test equipment or a "lamp". Finally, short to ground any exposed connections using insulated grounding sticks. This test must be done even if the electrical connection is physically broken, such as pulling out a plug, because of the chance of discharging components.
A TAG OUT ONLY PROCEDURE MAY BE USED IF THE MACHINE CAN NOT BE LOCKED OUT. IF THE MACHINE IS SUPPLIED ELECTRICAL POWER FROM A SINGLE SOURCE, WHICH IS UNDER THE EXCLUSIVE CONTROL OF A TRAINED AND QUALIFIED REPAIR PERSON AT ALL TIMES AND THERE ARE NOT ANY OTHER PERSONS IN THE REPAIR AREA WHO COULD BE HARMED BY THE ACCIDENTAL ENERGIZING OF THE MACHINERY, THEN TAG OUT MAY BE USED INSTEAD OF LOCK OUT/TAG OUT.
Many accidents occur at the moment of re-energizing. If the machinery is to be re-energized, all persons must be kept at a safe distance away from the machinery. The re-energization can be performed only by a person who either performed the lock-out/tag out, a person acting under the immediate and direct commands of the original lock-out/tag out person, or, in the event of a shift change, or other unavailability of the original person, then the original shall, before leaving, appoint a surrogate original person and show him or her all steps taken to lock-out/tag out the equipment.
This chapter contains information on the effects, evaluation, and control of noise. For assistance in evaluating a noise problem, contact the Responsible Safety Officer.
Exposing the ear to high levels of noise may cause hearing loss. This loss can be temporary or permanent. Temporary hearing loss or auditory fatigue occurs after a few minutes exposure to an intense noise but is recoverable following a period of time away from the noise. If the noise exposure is repeated, there may be only a partial hearing recovery and the loss becomes permanent. Typically, significant hearing losses occur first in the frequency range of 3,000 to 6,000 hertz (Hz). Losses in this frequency range are not critical to speech perception, and the individual usually is completely unaware of this initial symptom. With longer exposures, the hearing loss spreads to lower frequencies, which will affect speech perception. Workers' Compensation laws regard hearing losses in the speech frequency range of 500 to 3,000 Hz as being compensable. The evaluation of hearing loss due to noise is complicated by the fact that hearing acuity normally decreases with increasing age. Further, the losses associated with age are quite similar to those caused by excessive noise since the hearing for high frequency sounds is most affected in both instances. Hearing impairment may also result from infections, tumors, and degenerative diseases.
OSHA has prescribed the limits established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists as a standard for occupational noise exposure. Both the sound pressure level of the noise and the total duration of the noise exposure are considered to determine if these limits are exceeded. The sound pressure levels are expressed as dBA or decibels A-weighted. A-weighting filters are used when measuring sound levels to more accurately predict the response of the human ear to different frequencies. When the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise of different levels, their combined effect must be considered rather than the individual effect of each. Exposure to continuous noise above 115 dBA is not permitted without ear protection. Personnel must not be exposed to impact noises exceeding 140 dBA. Impact noises occur at intervals of greater than one per second. For example, the noise made by a metal shear.
Noise exposure can be reduced by using engineering controls, administrative procedures, or personal protective devices. Engineering Controls Reduction of noise production at the source: Proper design of new machines Modification of present machines Proper repair and upkeep of equipment Use of appropriate mufflers Use of vibration dampeners on machines Reduction of noise transmission: Increase distance between noise and personnel exposed Construction of barriers between noise source and personnel Sound treatment of ceilings and walls Administrative Procedures: Job schedule changes Personnel rotation Personnel Protective Devices: Ear plugs Earmuffs Federal and state occupational safety and health regulations require that whenever employees are exposed to excessive noise levels, feasible engineering or administrative controls must be used to reduce these levels. When these control measures cannot be completely accomplished and/or while such controls are being initiated, personnel must be protected from the effects of excessive noise levels. Such protection can, in most cases, be provided by wearing suitable protective hearing devices. The appropriate Medical Services provider and/or the supervisor of the Department will supply ear plugs for employees upon request or before going into a high noise area. There is a need for medical supervision when ear plugs are used because their effectiveness depends on proper fitting. Only approved plugs should be used. Ear plugs should be cleaned daily to prevent ear infections. Protection greater than that provided by a single device can be obtained by wearing ear plugs under an earmuff. While the reduction provided by wearing both devices simultaneously is considerably less than the sum of the individual attenuations, it is still greater than when either device is worn separately.
The measurement of hearing is called audiometry. Audiometric tests are used to determine whether or not the hearing of workers is adversely affected by noise. The appropriate Medical Services provider will give a pre-employment audiometric test to every employee who will regularly work in a high noise area. Thereafter, an audiometric test is given to all such employees at the time of their periodic physical examination. In addition, all employees whose noise exposures equal or exceed an eight-hour, time-weighted average of 85 dBA will be given an initial baseline audiometric test that must be preceded by at least 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise. Thereafter, the test will be repeated annually. To reduce unwanted noise, the audiometric test is administered by placing each individual in a sound insulated booth. Earphones are placed on the individual's head and a microprocessor audiometer presents a series of fixed frequency pure tones between 500 and 8000 Hz in each ear. These frequencies include the most useful range of hearing, as well as those frequencies most likely to show changes as a result of exposure to damaging levels of noise. By comparing tests taken at successive intervals, it can be determined how an employee's hearing ability is affected by a noisy environment.
Nuisance noises are noises that are not intense enough to cause hearing loss but that do disturb or interfere with normal activities, such as: Speech communication Telephone communication Listening to TV or radio broadcasts Concentration during mental activities Relaxation Sleep The amount of interference is dependent upon the intensity of the noise and its characteristics, such as steady versus intermittent noise, high or low pitch. The amount of interference may also depend upon the person's personality, attitude toward the source, familiarity with the noise, and the intrusiveness of the noise. What is music to one ear may be noise to another!
Your ABCs will provide suitable equipment to protect employees from hazards in the workplace. The Responsible Safety Officer will advise on what protective equipment is required for the task, but the supervisor of the operation must obtain this equipment and see that it is used. Protective clothing is not a substitute for adequate engineering controls.
Protective clothing will be issued to employees who work with hazardous material for the purpose of protecting their health and safety. The Responsible Safety Officer is available for consultation as needed.
Protective clothing must be monitored for radioactive contamination before being sent to the laundry.
Your ABCs encourages the wearing of safety shoes by making them available to any employee at cost from a manufacturer. For certain types of work the wearing of safety shoes is required by Company policy or by federal regulations. Examples are when employees are exposed to foot injuries from hot, corrosive, or poisonous substances; in shops, in equipment handling, or in construction jobs where there is a danger of falling objects; or in abnormally wet locations.
Your ABCs provides proper hand protection to employees exposed to known hand hazards. The supervisor must obtain the suitable hand protection and ensure that it is used. The individual department must maintain a supply of special or infrequently used hand protection. Assistance in selecting the proper hand protection may be obtained by consulting the Responsible Safety Officer.
Your ABCs provides appropriate head protection devices for employees to protect them from head or other injuries that could result from their working environment. Some head protection devices are available from stock. The supervisor must also maintain sufficient supply of head protection devices for visitors in the area.
Your ABCs provides appropriate eye protection devices for employees assigned to tasks in which an eye-injury hazard exists. The supervisor of the operation is responsible for determining the need for suitable eye-protection devices and for ensuring that the employees use them. The Responsible Safety Officer and appropriate Medical Services agency will assist the supervisor in defining eye-hazard operations and in selecting appropriate eye protection. An optometrist is available to issue, repair, adjust, and fit personal safety glasses and also for consultation regarding occupational eye protection.
The standard sign: CAUTION, EYE HAZARD AREA, DO NOT ENTER WITHOUT EYE PROTECTION, must be posted in every area where eye protection is mandatory. All employees who work in such an area must wear the eye protection issued to them. Every visitor to the area must also be provided with suitable eye protection.
Eye-protection devices are classified in four categories: Personal safety glasses. Goggles, face shields, etc. Temporary safety glasses provided to visitors in eye-hazard areas Laser safety eye wear.
Any operation that generates harmful airborne levels of dusts, fumes, sprays, mists, fogs, smokes, vapors, or gases or that may involve oxygen-deficient atmospheres requires the use of effective safety controls. This must be accomplished, as much as feasible, by accepted engineering control measures (for example, enclosure or confinement of the operation, general and local ventilation, and substitution of less toxic materials). When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or while they are being instituted, appropriate respiratory protection must be used in accordance with Your ABCs requirements as prescribed by OSHA in ANSI 288.2-1980, Standard Practices for Respiratory Protection.
To ensure that the respiratory protection program is conducted in accordance with ANSI 288.2-1980, certain responsibilities are required of each employee, supervisor, Responsible Safety Officer, and the Medical Services Department.
§ Wearing the respirator in accordance with the instructions and training received.
§ Maintaining and storing the respirator in good condition.
§ Returning the respirator at the end of the required use for overhaul, cleaning, and disinfection.
§ Identifying those employees who may need to use respiratory protection (Responsible Safety Officer will provide assistance upon request in this determination).
§ Ensuring that their employees have been properly trained and fitted.
§ Ensuring that their employees use the respirators as required.
§ Providing respiratory equipment.
§ Maintaining the equipment in good condition.
§ Fitting employees with proper respirators and providing training for their use.
§ Evaluating employee exposures and work conditions, including inspection of respirator use.
§ Granting medical approval for each respirator user.
The Responsible Safety Officer has selected the types of respiratory protective equipment to be used at Your ABCs. Any changes to protective equipment, its application, or the substitution of alternative protective equipment must be approved by the Responsible Safety Officer before its use. Your ABCs has a wide variety of respiratory protective equipment available. Each respirator has certain capabilities and limitations that are taken into account when issued. The types of respiratory protective devices provided by Your ABCs are described below. Disposable dust masks are approved for protection against low (non-hazardous) levels of nuisance dusts. They provide no protection against vapors or gases, and they cannot be used in oxygen-deficient areas.
There are no applicable training or fitting restrictions. Air-purifying, half- and full-face masks are approved for protection against low concentration of toxic particulates, organic vapors, acid gases, and ammonia. Specific cartridges must be selected for protection against each material. They must never be used in atmospheres deficient in oxygen, when carbon monoxide or oxides of nitrogen are suspected, or when conditions prevent a good face seal. Such conditions may be a growth of beard, sideburns, a skullcap that projects under the face-piece or temple pieces on eyeglasses. Users must be trained, fitted, and medically approved before they can be issued a respirator. Supplied-air, half- and full-face masks may be used in atmospheres unsuitable for air-purifying respirators but cannot be used in areas which are immediately dangerous to life or health. Compressors are normally used to supply breathing air, but compressed air cylinders may also be used. The user must be medically approved, trained, and fitted before using this equipment.
Personnel will not be fitted or issued a respirator if there is any condition that may prevent a good face seal, such as a beard, sideburns, skullcap, or temple pieces on eyeglasses. Supplied-air hoods are approved for respiratory protection in any atmosphere not immediately dangerous to life or health, and from which the wearer can escape without the aid of a respirator. The user must be medically approved and trained in its proper use. The presence of a beard, sideburns, skullcap, or eyeglasses will not affect the performance of this type of respirator.
The Responsible Safety Officer periodically takes samples from the potable water system throughout the Company and has them checked for biological contaminants. This is a check to ensure a high-quality water supply for drinking purposes. The drinking water supply must not contain impurities in concentrations that may be hazardous to the health of the employees or that would be offensive to the senses of sight, taste, or smell. The drinking water supply system must be installed according to the National Plumbing Code and must be maintained in good condition. The drinking water system must be protected against backflow with approved connections and plumbing devices.
New additions or alterations to existing domestic water lines must be disinfected with chlorine solution and biologically tested prior to being put into service. Procedures must be those spelled out in the American Water Works Association publication AWWA C601, latest edition.
Every enclosed work place and personal service room must be constructed, equipped, and maintained in such a manner as to prevent the entrance or harborage of rodents, insects, and vermin.
All readily perishable foods or beverages, capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth of micro-organisms, must be stored below 7 degrees C (45 degrees F). Food that is served hot must be heated over 60 degrees C (140 degrees F) and kept that hot during the serving period to prevent growth of bacteria. Food served cold should be maintained below 10 degrees C (50 degrees F). All food and beverages must be prepared, stored, displayed, dispensed, placed, or served so they are protected from dust, flies, vermin, pollution by rodents, unnecessary handling, airborne droplets, infection, overhead leakage, or other contamination. Food that is transported from a cafeteria where it has been prepared to another cafeteria must be protected from contamination in transit. All suspected or alleged cases of food poisoning must be reported to the Responsible Safety Officer for immediate investigation. Food must not be stored or eaten in areas where toxic materials are handled.
Adequate toilets, washrooms, lockers, and other essential sanitary facilities must be readily accessible for employees near their work areas. These facilities must be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. Soap in a dispenser and apparatus for drying of hands must be provided at each wash place.
This standard is intended to safeguard Your ABCs drinking water supplies by:
§ Protecting potable water supplies against actual or potential cross connection.
§ Eliminating any existing cross-connection hazards between potable water systems and non-potable water systems. Preventing the making of cross-connections in the future.
§ Requiring the exclusive use of potable water for drinking, personal, eyewash, safety shower, and culinary purposed.
No piping shall be installed so that used, unclean, polluted, or contaminated substances can enter any portion of the potable water supplies by back siphonage, suction, back pressure, or any other cause. Protection shall be guaranteed during normal use and operation and when any tank, receptacle, equipment, or plumbing fixture is flooded, or subject to pressure in excess of the operating pressure in the water piping. Unless an approved air gap or backflow prevention device is provided, no plumbing fixture, device, or equipment shall be connected to any potable water supply when such connection may pollute water supplies or may provide a cross-connection with non-potable water. Appropriate corrective action shall be taken immediately where any cross-connection hazard exists and is not properly protected. All water lines and outlets shall be appropriately marked to indicate whether the water is safe or unsafe for drinking. All backflow preventers shall be listed by the University of Southern California Foundation of Cross-Connection Control or similar agency. All fire protection backflow preventers shall be listed by Factory Mutual and the University of Southern California Foundation of Cross-Connection Control or comparable agency.
Before any device is installed for the prevention of backflow or back siphonage, removed from use, relocated or substituted, or an existing potable water line extended, work shall be approved by the Your ABCs Engineering Department. All issues of this Standard shall first be reviewed by the Responsible Safety Officer. Compliance with this Standard shall be monitored by the Health and Safety Department.
TESTING & MAINTENANCE: All devices installed in the potable water supply system for protection against backflow shall be tested annually and maintained in good working condition by designated maintenance personnel, in accordance with the procedures outlines in the latest edition of Cross-Connection Manual by the University of Southern California Foundation of Control and Hydraulic Research, or comparable publication. Defective or inoperative devices shall be repaired or immediately. Records of such tests, repairs, and overhauling shall be the Construction and Maintenance Department and made available to Engineering Department and Responsible Safety Officers upon request.
The Engineering Department shall be responsible for maintaining this Standard. The approved devices shall be reviewed periodically to ensure that all approvals are current, and to delete or add to the approved devices as deemed necessary.
The Responsible Safety Officer and Engineering Department shall be kept informed of the identity of the Your ABCs representative responsible for the water piping concerned with this Standard. In the event of contamination or pollution of the drinking water system due to a cross-connection, the Responsible Safety Officer and Engineering Department shall be promptly advised by the Your ABCs representative responsible for the water system so that appropriate measures may be taken to overcome the contamination.
A device containing a shut-off valve followed by a valve body containing a float-check, a check seat and an air inlet port. When the shut-off valve is open the flow of water causes the float to inlet port. When the shut-off valve is closed, the float falls check valve against back-siphonage and at the same time, opens inlet port.
The undesirable reversal of the flow of water or mixtures of water and other liquids, gases, or other substances into the pipes of the potable supply of water from any source or sources.
Backflow Preventer (approved):
A device that has been approved by Your ABCs for the prevention of backflow into potable water systems.
A pressure increase in the downstream piping system (by pump, elevation of piping, or steam and/or air pressure) above pressure at the point of consideration which allows reversal of direction of flow through the backflow prevention assembly.
A form of backflow due to a reduction in system which causes a reverse flow to exist in the water system.
Any change in water quality which creates a threat to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids or waste.
Any unprotected, actual, or potential connection or structural arrangement between a potable water system and any other source or system through which it is possible to introduce into any potable water system any used water, industrial fluid, gas, or liquid other than the intended potable water. This includes bypass arrangements, jumper connections, removable sections, changeover devices and other temporary or permanent devices because of which can cause "backflow."
An assembly composed of two single, independently acting, approved check valves, including tight-closing shut-off valves at each end of the assembly and fitted with properly located test cocks.
non-potable water intended for industrial use.
Any substance of a non-poisonous nature that may create a moderate or minor hazard to the potable water system.
Water from any source which has been approved for human consumption.
A device containing one or two independently operating loaded check valves and an independently operating air inlet valve located on the discharge side of the check or device; to be equipped with properly located test cocks and closing shut-off valves located at each end of the assembly.
A device containing two independently acting approved check valves together with a hydraulically and mechanically independent pressure relief valve located between the check valves and at the same time below the first check valve. The device includes properly located test cocks and tightly closing shut-off valve at each end of the assembly.
Any substance (liquid, solid, or gaseous), such as sewage and lethal substances which, when introduced into the system, creates or may create a danger to the health and well consumer. (Defined as a contaminant or health hazard).
American Water Works Association: AWWA No. M14.Backflow Prevention and Cross-Connection AWWA C506-78 Backflow Prevention Devices - Reduced Pressure Principle and Double Check Valve Types. State of California Administrative Codes: Title 17: Drinking Water Supplies. Title 24: Basic Plumbing Regulations. Foundation for Cross-Connection Control and Hydraulic Research, University of Southern California: Manual of Control
An air gap is the only absolute means of eliminating a physical link or cross-connection, and positively preventing backflow. Air gaps used wherever practicable and where used must not be bypassed. The supply inlet to a tank or fixture must be terminated above level rim of the tank or fixture by a distance equal to at least the effective opening of the supply inlet pipe. There should be provision for extending the supply pipe beyond the flood level Minimum 2D or 1 inch, whichever is greater; D = nominal diameter of fill pipe.
Devices shall be:
a. Accessible for maintenance, repair, and testing.
b. Located outside any enclosure or hooded areas containing toxic or poisonous fumes.
c. Installed with the air inlet in the level position.
d. Installed a minimum of six inches above the flood level rim of the fixture, tank, highest outlet, highest sprinkler, highest downstream piping, or similar device.
e. Installed downstream of the last shut-off valve. (example: 160F hot water).
§ Lawn sprinklers.
§ Laboratory and janitors sinks.
§ Low inlets to tanks, vats, sumps, and other receptors.
§ Hose-bibs or outlets with hose attachment means.
§ Water closet or urinal flushometer valves.
§ Cooling towers.
Devices shall be:
a. Accessible for maintenance, repair, and testing.
b. Installed 12 inches above the floor level rim of the highest outlet, highest sprinkler, highest downstream piping, or similar device.
c. Installed with the air inlet in the level position.
d. Approved to operate at the temperature of the water being used (example: 160F Hot Water).
2. Devices shall not be:
a. Installed in pits or similar potentially submerged locations.
b. Installed where, if slight spillage should occur, it would be objectionable.
§ Lawn sprinklers.
§ Cooling towers.
§ Low inlets to tanks, vats, sumps, and other receptors.
§ Floor drains with trap primers or flushing connections.
§ Chlorinators on the suction side of the pump.
§ Water cooled equipment.
§ Industrial water systems.
Devices shall be:
a. Accessible for maintenance, repair, and testing.
b. Installed level to the horizontal position.
c. Approved to operate at the temperature of the water being used (example: 160F Hot Water). Devices shall not be:
a. Installed in pits or similar potentially submerged locations.
19) Steam boilers.
20) Closed heat water systems.
21) Heat exchangers.
22) Vending machines.
23) Fire sprinkler systems.
24) Chilled water systems.
Devices shall be:
a. Accessible for maintenance, repair, and testing.
b. Installed in an open area to protect against flooding around the discharge from the differential relief valve assembly.
c. Installed in the horizontal position.
d. Be provided with funneled discharge piping and required air gap when installed indoors.
e. Installed at least 12 inches above the floor or grade.
Devices shall not be installed in pits or similar potentially submerged locations.
§ Company building water service.
§ Steam boilers.
§ Closed heating water systems.
§ Closed chilled water systems.
§ Heat exchangers.
§ Autoclave, sterilizer, and steam tables.
§ Degreasing equipment.
§ Hydraulic elevators.
§ Etching tanks.
§ Processing tanks.
§ Fire sprinkler systems.
§ Priming water to pumps moving toxic fluids.
§ Lawn sprinklers.